The multiplication of thongs for purposes of flogging is found in the old Roman flagellum, a scourge, which had sometimes three thongs with bone or bronze knots fastened to them.
The result of cleavage in all cases is a typical blastula, which when set free becomes oval and develops a flagellum to each cell, but when not set free, it remains spherical in form and has no flagella.
6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
B, Anterior end of Euglena showing the flagellum with its swelling just in the hollow of the eye-spot.
Besides the works already noticed, he wrote De arte critica (1597); De Antichristo (1605); Pro auctoritate ecclesiae in decidendis fidei controversiis libellus; Scaliger hypololymaeus (1607), a virulent attack on Scaliger; and latterly the anti-jesuitical works, Flagellum Jesuiticum (1632); Mysteria patrum jesuitorum (1633); and Arcana societatis Jesu (1635).
The feelers are generally simple in type, rarely showing serrations or prominent appendages; but one or two basal segments are frequently differentiated to form an elongate " scape," the remaining segments - carried at an elbowed angle to the scapemaking up the " flagellum "; the segments of the flagellum often bear complex sensory organs.
Each of these limbs was twobranched, the external branch consisting of a slender fringed flagellum possibly respiratory in function, and the inner of a normal jointed ambulatory leg.
Its length (inclusive of the flagellum) varies from 40-60 while its greatest width (including the undulating-membrane) is from 8-30, u; in the very wide individuals breadth is gained more or less at the expense of length.
One flagellum is entirely free and directed forwards; the other at once turns backwards and is attached to the convex or dorsal side of the body for the greater part of its length.
In all other Trypanosomes there is only one flagellum, which is invariably attached to the body in the same manner as the posterior one of biflagellate forms. This flagellum, however, is most probably not to be considered homologous in all cases.
3, E), which is to be derived from a Herpetomonadine type, the single, anterior flagellum of the ancestral parasite has been drawn backwards along one side of the body and now originates in the posterior half.
Hence in this genus the end bearing the free part of the flagellum is the anterior one.
Hence in this type the single flagellum represents the posteriorly-directed one of Trypanoplasma, and the end at which it becomes free is the hinder end.
This always begins at the place where the attached flagellum emerges from the body; and its free edge is really constituted by the latter, which forms a flageIlar border.
The duplication of the flagellum begins at its proximal end, that which is in relation with the kinetonucleus.
Until recently the process has been considered as an actual longitudinal splitting of the flagellum, following upon the separation of the two daughter-kinetonuclei.
Brucei), have found, however, that the new flagellum is developed quite independently and laid down alongside the old one.
H If the flagellar border splits, the membrane doubtless divides also; but where the flagellum is a new formation the membrane will be too.
These young individuals can themselves multiply by equal binary fission, giving Anterior flagellum; Posterior flagellum; Longitudinal striations nemes); Cytoplasmic vacuole.
E - H shows the formation of the myonemes and the flagellar border (flagellum) of the undulating membrane, by means of a greatly elongated nuclear-spindle.
- Haemoflagellates derived from a uniflagellate, Herpetomonadine form, in which the point of insertion of the single (anterior) flagellum into the body has travelled backwards from the anterior end for a greater or less distance, the flagellum itself having become, concurrently, attached to the body for a portion of its length by means of an undulating membrane.
- Flagellates, in the great majority of instances haemal parasites, derived from a biflagellate, Bodo-like type, in which the posteriorly-directed (trailing) flagellum is always present and attached to the body by an undulating membrane, of which it constitutes the thickened edge.
The other, the anterior flagellum, may or may not persist.
- The anterior flagellum is present.
4, F and G) from the rudd and minnow, the anterior flagellum is well-developed, and the free parts of both are of about equal length.
4, H) from carp, the anterior flagellum is much shorter than the free part of the posterior one, and evidently tending to disappear.
The anterior flagellum is longer than the free part of the posterior one.
The point of insertion of the attached (posterior) flagellum into the body, and, consequently, the commencement of the undulating membrane may be almost anywhere in the anterior half of the body, but is usually near the extremity.
These forms were elongated and spindle-like; and to one end of the body, near which the smaller nuclear element was situated, a well-developed flagellum was attached.
At the anterior end of the test is the apical plate from the centre of which projects a long flagellum as in many other Lamellibranch larvae.
2, a) are divided into "scape" and "flagellum" as in the ants, and the mandibles vary greatly in size and sharpness in different genera.
The uncleanliness of the city was comparable to that of oriental cities at the present day, and, according to contemporary testimony (Garencieres, Angliae flagellum, London, 16 47, p. 85), little improved since Erasmus wrote his well-known description.
Anthracis, have no cilia; others have only one flagellum at one pole (Monotrichous), e.g.
Sporogenous rodlets cylindric, not altered in shape: - Bacillus (Cohn), non-motile; Bactrinium (Fischer), motile, with one polar flagellum (monotrichous); Bactrillum (Fischer), motile, with a terminal tuft of cilia (lophotrichous); Bactridium (Fischer), motile, with cilia all over the surface (peritrichous) .
When the eye-stalk is removed from a living lobster or prawn, it is found that under certain conditions a many-jointed appendage like the flagellum of an antennule or antenna may grow in its place.
In the Malacostraca they are chiefly sensory, the endopodite forming a long flagellum, while the exopodite may form a lamellar " scale," probably useful as a balancer in swimming, or may disappear altogether.
Thelyphonus and its allies, however, have a long tactile caudal flagellum, the homologue of the scorpion's sting; but its exact use is unknown.