Lowe soon made his mark in the political world by his clever speeches, particularly on finance and education; and besides obtaining a large legal practice, he was one of the principal writers for the Atlas newspaper.
Depretis thereupon reconstructed his administration, excluding Nicotera, Melegari and Zanardelli, placing Crispi at the home office, entrusting Magliani with finance, and himself assuming the direction of foreign affairs.
On the outbreak of Kosciuszko's insurrection he returned to Poland, and as member of the national government and minister of finance took a leading part in affairs.
Persons who have held the licence to trade (sec FINANCE) for five years and upwards.
At the time of her accession to office Charles changed the form of administration by the creation of three separate councils, those of State, of Finance, and the Privy Council.
Batthyany, who formed the first responsible ministry, could not refuse to admit Kossuth, but he gave him the ministry of finance, probably because that seemed to open to him fewest prospects of engrossing popularity.
At the head of the financial organization of France, and exercising a general jurisdiction, is the minister of finance, who co-ordinates in one general budget the separate budgets prepared by his colleagues and assigns to each ministerial department the sums necessary for its expenses.
The banking institutions are supervised by an inspector of finance, who reports annually to the General Assembly.
The royal commissioner for finance, Giacomelli, had, as a precautionary measure, seized the pontifical treasury; but upon being informed by Cardinal Antonelli that among the funds deposited in the treasury were 1,000,000 crowns of Peters Pence offered by the faithful to the pope in person, the commissioner was authorized by the Italian council of state not only to restore this sum, but also to indemnify the Holy See for moneys expended for the service of the October coupon of the pontifical debt, that debt having been taken over by the Italian state.
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
By abolishing the illusory pensions fund, by applying and amending the Bank Laws, effecting economies, and increasing taxation upon corn, incomes from consolidated stock, salt and matches, he averted national bankruptcy, and placed Italian finance upon a sounder basis than at any time since the fall of the Right.
He became a recognized authority on finance, and repeatedly served on the Budget Commission as reporter or president.
Of the rest of the sum assigned to the ministry of finance (593/4 millions in all) 81/2 millions went in the expense of collection of revenue.
Bastable, Public Finance (1903).
The ministry of war is divided into branches for infantry, cavalry, &c.and services for special subjects such as military law, explosives, health, &c. The general staff (stat major de larme) has its functions classed as follows: personnel; material and finance; 1st bureau (organization and mobilization), 2nd (intelligence), 3rd (military operations and training) and 4th (communications and transport); and the famous historical section.
The central organization also comprises a number of departments (services) entrusted with the various branches of naval administration, such as administration of the active fleet, construction of ships, arsenals, recruiting, finance, &c. The minister has the assistance of the Conseil suprieur de Ia Marine, over which he presides, consisting of three vice-admirals, the chief of staff and some other members.
~Colonial Finance.The cost of the extra-European possessions, other than Algeria and Tunisia, to the state is shown in the expenses of the colonial ministry.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
Meanwhile each party forms its own organization of chiefs, finance-officers and registrars at home, and sends ambassadors to foreign cities of the same complexion.
Though perhaps less desperate than during the previous decade, the condition of Italian finance was precarious indeed.
With Finance taxation screwed up to breaking point on personal and real estate, on all forms of commercial and industrial activity, and on salt, flour and other necessaries of life; with a deficit of 8,500,000 for the current year, and the prospect of a further aggregate deficit of Li ~,ooo,ooo during the next quinquennium, Sellas heroic struggle against national bankruptcy was still far from a successful termination.
As finance minister in the Rattazzi cabinet of that year he had been confronted with a public debt of nearly 120,000,000, and with an immediate deficit of nearly 18,000,000.
Ferrara, successor of Scialoja, met a like fate; but Count Cambray-Digny, finance minister in the Menabrea cabinet of 1868-1869, driven to find means to cover a deficit aggravated by the interest on the Venetian debt, succeeded, with Sellas help, in forcing a Grist Tax Bill through parliament, though in a form of which Sella could not entirely approve.
Practically, therefore, the Right, of which the Minghetti cabinet was the last representative administration, left Italian finance with a surplus of 80,000.
Outside the all-important domain of finance, the attention of Minghetti and his colleagues was principally absorbed by strife between church and state, army reform and railway redemption.
The administration of finance was as chaotic as the condition of parliament.
In their anxiety to remain in office Depretis and the finance minister, Magliani, never hesitated to mortgage the financial future of their country.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
The management of finance was scarcely satisfactory, for though Giolitti, who had succeeded Magliani and Perazzi at the treasury, suppressed the formers illusory pension fund, he lacked the fibre necessary to deal with the enormous deficit of nearly 10,000,000 in 1888-1889, the existence of which both i Perazzi and he had recognized.
So vigorous was his treatment of Irredentism that he dismissed without warning his colleague Seismit Doda, minister of finance, for having failed to protest against Irredentist speeches delivered in his presence at Udine.
Baron Sidney Sonnino, minister of finance in the Crispi cabinet, found a prospective deficit of 7,080,000, and in spite of economies was obliged to face an actual deficit of more than 6,ooo,000.