It is subject, however, to extreme and rapid variations in temperature, to alternations of dry and humid winds (the latter, called catias, being irritating and oppressive), to chilling night mists brought up from the coast by the westerly winds, and to other influences productive of malaria, catarrh, fevers, bilious disorders and rheumatism.
Malarial fevers make their appearance in places where the forest has been recently felled, or where the surface earth has been disturbed.
The valley regions are tropical, and malarial fevers are common.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
But while the province in many parts presents a landscape of luxuriant beauty, it is a prey to the ravages of disease, principally malarial fevers due to the extensive swamps formed by waters stagnating in the forests, and to the frequent incursions of the Goklan and Yomut Turkomans, who have their camping-grounds in the northern part of the province, and until about 1890 plundered caravans sometimes at the very gates of Astarabad city, and carried people off into slavery and bondage.
On the whole the climate of Syria - if the Jordan valley and the moister districts are excepted - is not unhealthy, though intermittent fevers are not uncommon in some places.
There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere, mainly responsible for their existence.
Formerly used in every fever, and even in the septic states that constantly followed surgical operations in the pre-Listerian epoch, aconite is now employed only in the earliest stage of the less serious fevers, such as acute tonsilitis, bronchitis and, notably, laryngitis.
The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.
Its character is readily changed by the abnormal activities which take place in these glands during some of the acute fevers; the semi-solid consistence may become mucoid or even fluid.
Alexander of Aphrodisias, who lived and wrote at Athens in the time of Septimius Severus, is best known by his commentaries on Aristotle, but also wrote a treatise on fevers, still extant.
Chemical disturbances of these processes, called acridities, &c., were the cause of fevers and other diseases.
He introduced a milder and better way of treating fevers - especially small-pox, and gave strong support to the use of specific medicines - especially Peruvian bark.
His countryman and pupil, George Cheyne (1671-1743), who lived some years at Bath, published a new theory of fevers on the mechanical system, which had a great reputation.
A physician of Plymouth, John Huxham (1694-1768), made researches on epidemic fevers, in the spirit of Sydenham and Hippocrates, which are of the highest importance.
The name of John Pringle (1707-1782) should also be mentioned as one of the first to study epidemics of fevers occurring in prisons and camps.
Broussais's chief aim was to find an anatomical basis for all diseases, but he is especially known for his attempt to explain all fevers as a consequence of irritation or inflammation of the intestinal canal (gastroenterite).
Cohnheim (1839-1884) and of Iliya Metchnikoff on the dynamical side of his- Fevers tology.
Yet, although, as Andral and other French physicians proved, it was extravagant to say that all fevers take their origin from some local inflammation, it was true and most useful to insist, as Broussais vehemently insisted, that "fever" is no substance, but a generalization drawn from symptoms common to many and various diseases springing from many various and often local causes; from causes agreeing perhaps only in the factor of elevation of the temperature of the body.
De Haen, and, in the United Kingdom, George Cleghorn (1716-1789) of Dublin and James Currie (1756-1805), carried on the use of the thermometer in fevers; and on the continent of Europe in later years F.
In particular the fluctuations of the pulse in fevers and inflammations were better understood, and accurately registered; and we can scarcely realize now that before Harvey the time of the pulse seems not to have been counted by the watch.
Medicine and surgery are but two aspects of one art; Pasteur shed light on both surgery and medicine, and when Lister, his disciple, penetrated into the secrets of wound fevers and septicaemia, he illuminated surgery and medicine alike, and, in the one sphere as in the other, co-operated in the destruction of the idea of "essential fevers" and of inflammation as an "entity."
It follows that the drug is an antipyretic, and it is hence largely used in fevers as a means of reducing the temperature.
The succulent fruits are not only edible but agreeable, and in fevers are freely administered as a cooling drink.
The death-rate is high, especially among children, owing to the prevalence of cholera, smallpox and fevers during the dry weather.
The climate of the coastal zone and deeper valleys is hot, humid and unhealthy, malarial fevers being prevalent.
These lowland districts are densely forested in the south, except Yucatan, and large areas are covered with streams, swamps and lagoons, the abode of noxious insects, pestilential fevers and dysentery.
Rogers," On the development of flagellated organisms (Trypanosomes) from the spleen Protozoic parasites of cachexial fevers and Kala-azar," Quart.
Malarial fevers are also common, and diseases of the digestive organs, in great part easily preventible, figure among the principal causes of death.
Upper Egypt is healthier than Lower Egypt, where, especially near the coast, malarial fevers and diseases of the respiratory organs are not uncommon.
The mean annual temperature is about 82° to 83° F.; malarial and bilious fevers are common, the latter being known as "Guayaquil fever," and epidemics of yellow fever are frequent.
The climate is hot and humid, and fevers are prevalent in the hot season.
Fevers are hardly known.
The public health is good, and fevers and plague are unknown.
In the deep valleys of the Takazze and Abai, and generally in places below 4000 ft., the conditions are tropical and fevers are prevalent.
Yellow and other fevers often attack the, - .
In the tropical yungas the ground is covered with decaying vegetation, and malaria and fevers are common.
Mitchill (1764-1831) pointed out in America the resemblance which exists between symptoms of Anti- poisoning by snake venom and infective fevers.'
In 1680 he was the constant victim of severe fevers, from which he recovered for a time through the use of quinine prescribed by an English physician.
In the hot months intermittent fevers are prevalent in the Guadiana valley.
The army diseases of the Civil Wars were chiefly typhus and malarial fevers, but plague was not unknown among them, as at Wallingford Castle (Willis, " Of Feavers," Works, ed.
Smallpox, dysentery and fevers, frequently of a bilious character, are endemic and occasionally epidemic. Cholera breaks out from time to time and works great havoc, as was the case in 1903 when one of the raja of Sarawak's punitive expeditions was stricken while ascending the Limbang river by boat, and lost many hundreds of its numbers before the coast could be regained.