The last named has succeeded, by means of the large establishments at Milan in supplying not only the whole Italian market but an export trade.
The export, moreover, of live sheep and of frozen mutton to Europe has become an important factor in the trade of Argentina.
The average value of the principal articles of import and export (special trade) over quinquennial periods following 1890 is shown in the two tables below.
In the north the staple products for export are salt, grain, wool and cotton, in the south opium and cotton; while the imports consist of sugar, hardware and piece goods.
Ashland has an excellent harbour, has large iron-ore and coal docks, and is the principal port for the shipment of iron ore from the rich Gogebec Range, the annual ore shipment approximating 3,500,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000, and it has also an extensive export trade in lumber.
The most important export is fish, other items being seaweed, marble, preserved foods, butter and margarine and infusorial earth.
About 4,000,000 bottles of water are exported annually, and another article of export is the salt recovered from the water by evaporation.
The export trade, however, is decreasing considerably, while the home consumption is increasing.
Compared with the export trade in live stock from Ireland to Great Britain the reciprocal trade from Great Britain to Ireland is small, and is largely restricted to animals for breeding purposes.
There is a considerable trade (not very large for export, however) in natural mineral Waters, which are often excellent.
Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to China, is produced.
The industries mainly consist in shipbuilding, fish-curing, and the manufacture of machinery (particularly for agriculture), and the commerce in the export of corn, wood and fish.
The total gold production of the country is from £14,500,000 to £16,000,000, and as not more than three-quarters of a million are required to strengthen existing local stocks, the balance is usually available for export, and the average export of the precious metal during the ten years, 1896-1905, was £12,500,000 per annum.
The orange and lemon groves have also suffered considerably, but new varieties of the orange tree are now being introduced, and an impulse will be given to the export trade in this fruit by the removal of the restriction on its importation into Greece.
The export that comes next in value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore, maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber.
Sheep were small and their fleeces light, nevertheless, owing to the meagreness of the yields of cereals' and the demand for wool for export, sheep-farming was looked to, as early as the 12th century, as the chief source of profit.
The lack of employment in factories naturally affected the coal mining industry, and indeed every industry in the states, except those connected with the export trade, was severely affected.
Calbayog has an important export trade in hemp, which is shipped to Manila.
It has, however, a comparatively small export trade.
The chief seaport is Negapatam, and the principal export is rice to Ceylon.
In the latter course they were encouraged by the high prices of wool during the, 4th century, and by Edward III.'s policy of fostering both the export of wool and the home manufacture of woollen goods.
A very large industry in Bukhara is the export of Astrakhan lamb skins (called locally Karakul).