Pytheas, a navigator of the Phocean colony of Massilia (Marseilles), determined the latitude of that port with considerable precision by the somewhat clumsy method of ascertaining the length of the longest day, and when, about 330 B.C., he set out on exploration to the northward in search of the lands whence came gold, tin and amber, he followed this system of ascertaining his position from time to time.
Equally indecisive is the further exploration as to evidence for the opinion held by other naturalists that the endemic species of the different islands have resulted from subsidences, through volcanic action, which have reduced one large island mass into a number of islets, wherein the separated species became differentiated during their isolation.
But the progress of exploration and excavation may render this subject to further modification.
Deep, which baffled every effort to reach the interior until in 1813, when a summer of severe drought had made it of vital importance to find new pastures, three of the colonists, Messrs Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth, more fortunate than their predecessors in exploration, after crossing the Nepean river at Emu Plains and ascending the Dividing Range, were able to reach a position enabling them to obtain a view of the grassy valley of the Fish river, which lies on the farther side of the Dividing Range.
Lacerda left a valuable record of his adventurous journey; but with Mungo Park and Lacerda the history of African exploration in the 18th century closes.
A quick exploration of his apartments showed two more dead vamps but no Black God.
The nearest small town was thinly populated during winter, but she'd seen people there during her exploration of the area around Jonny's.
Roman milestones and aqueducts also are found, and close by the now famous tomb of Apollophanes, with wall-paintings of animals and other ornamentation, was discovered in 1902; a description of it will be found in Thiersch and Peters, The Marissa Tombs, published by the Palestine Exploration Fund.
To him we owe the exploration of the coast for about goo m.
Some small expeditions were made from Bathurst, resulting in the discovery of the Lachlan, and in 1816 the first of the great exploration expeditions of Australia was fitted out under Lieutenant Oxley, R.N.
Long., an extent of half a million square miles, still remained a blank in the map. But the two expeditions of 1873, conducted by William Christie Gosse (1842-1881), afterwards deputy surveyorgeneral for South Australia, and Colonel (then Major) Egerton Warburton, made a beginning in the exploration of this terra incognita west of the central telegraph route.
The list of explorers since 1875 is a long one; but after Forrest's and Giles's expeditions the main object ceased to be the discovery of pastoral country: a new zest had been added to the cause of exploration, and most of the smaller expeditions concerned themselves with the search for gold.
Lindsay's expedition, which was fitted out by Sir Thomas Elder, the generous patron of Australian exploration, entered Western Australia about the 26th parallel south lat., on the line of route taken by Forrest in 1874.
It may be said that exploration on a large scale is now at an end; there remain only the spaces, nowhere very extensive, between the tracks of the old explorers yet to be examined, and these are chiefly in the Northern Territory and in Western Australia north of the tropic of Capricorn.
Epps, The Land Systems of Australia, 8vo (London, 1894); Ernest Favenc, The History of Australasian Exploration, royal 8vo (Sydney, 1885); R.
The evolutionary idea has revolutionized and unified geography as it did biology, breaking down the old hard-and-fast partitions between the various departments, and substituting the study of the nature and influence of actual terrestrial environments for the earlier motive, the discovery and exploration of new lands.
Progress Of Geographical Discovery Exploration and geographical discovery must have started from more than one centre, and to deal justly with the matter one ought to treat of these separately in the early ages before the whole civilized world was bound together by the bonds of modern intercommunication.
So it has come about that the only practicable history of geographical exploration starts from the Mediterranean centre, the first home of that civilization which has come to be known as European, though its field of activity has long since overspread the habitable land of both temperate zones, eastern Asia alone in part excepted.
From all centres the leading motives of exploration were probably the same - commercial intercourse, warlike operations, whether resulting in conquest or in flight, religious zeal expressed in pilgrimages or missionary journeys, or, from the other side, the avoidance of persecution, and, more particularly in later years, the advancement of knowledge for its own sake.
The works of the ancient Greek geographers were translated into Arabic, and starting with a sound basis of theoretical knowledge, exploration once more made progress.
In 1462 Pedro de Cintra extended Portuguese exploration along the African coast and discovered Sierra Leone.
The direct line of Portuguese exploration resulted in the discovery of the Cape route to India by Vasco da Gama (1498), and in 1500 to the independent discovery of South America by Pedro Alvarez Cabral.
The conception of the north-western route to Cathay now leads the story of exploration, for the first time as far as important and sustained efforts are concerned, towards the Arctic seas.
Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.
The land from Taimyr to Cape Chelyuskin, the most northern extremity of Siberia, was mapped in many years of patient exploration by Chelyuskin, who reached the extreme point (77° 34' N.) in May 1742.
(See Africa; Asia; Australia; Polar Regions; &c.) Here, however, may be noticed the development of geographical societies devoted to the encouragement of exploration and research.
Road, which agrees with the generally received identification, Tell el-Ilesi, an important mound excavated for the Palestine Exploration Fund by Petrie and Bliss, 1890-1893.
Bliss, A Mound of many Cities, both published by the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel); G.
Atkinson, Travels in the Region of the Amoor (1860); Collins, Exploration of the Amoor (ed.
Pertz made frequent journeys of exploration to the leading libraries and public record offices of Europe, publishing notes on the results of his explorations in the Archiv.
- Clarence King, Report of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel (Professional Papers of the Engineer Department, U.S. Army); George M.
See Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement, 1869, p. 123; 1874, p. 62; 1878, pp. 10, 132, 194; 1881, p. 254.
The recent exploration and excavation of early sites in Crete have entirely revolutionized our knowledge of its Early, remote past, and afforded the most astonishing E Middle evidence of the existence of a highly advanced and Late civilization going far back behind the historic period.
The recent exploration of a cemetery belonging to the close of the great palace period, and in a greater degree to the age succeeding the catastrophe, has now conclusively shown that there was no real break in the continuity of Minoan culture.
The exploration begun by the Italian Mission under Halbherr and continued by Evans, who found here the inscribed libation table (see above), was completed by Hogarth in 1900.
The history of Mississippi may be divided into the period of exploration (154 1699), the period of French rule (1699-1763), the period of English rule (1763-1781), the period of Spanish rule (1781-1798), the territorial period (1798-1817), and the period of statehood (1817 seq.).
Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.
Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
Of Greenwich, which is the revised value given by Prjevalsky in the map accompanying the account of his fourth exploration into central Asia.
Asiatic Russia, especially eastern Siberia and Mongolia, have been brought within the sphere of Russian exploration, with results so surprising as to form an epoch in the history of Asia.
Much still remains to be done in the exploration of China and eastern Asia; but it is known that many of the special forms of this region extend to the Himalaya, while others clearly indicate a connexion with North America.
Proc. R.G.S., 1882; Baker, " A Journey of Exploration in Western Ssu-Chuan," vol.
In 1639 he accompanied Pedro Texiera in his second exploration of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, and draw up a report for the Spanish government.
From 1886 dates the finding of Mycenaean sepulchres outside the Argolid, from which, and from the continuation of Tsountas's exploration of the buildings and lesser graves at Mycenae, a large treasure, independent of Schliemann's princely gift, has been gathered into the National Museum at Athens.
The revolution of 1897-98 opened the door to wider knowledge, and much exploration has ensued, for which see Crete.
Thanks to the exploration of Cnossus, we now know that Aegean civilization had its roots in a primitive Neolithic period, of uncertain but very long duration, represented by a stratum which (on that site in particular) is in places nearly 20 ft.
G..Gmelin, Giildenstalt, Lepechin and others - in the exploration of the recently extended Russian empire supplied not only much material to the Commentarii and Acta of the Academy of St Petersburg, but more that is to be found in their narratives - all of it being of the highest interest to students of Palaearctic or Nearctic ornithology.
He is famous as a pioneer in the exploration of the monuments of Greece, travelling there in1675-1676with the Englishman (Sir) George Wheler (1650-1723), whose collection of antiquities was afterwards bequeathed to Oxford University.
The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums, and specialization - either in the fauna of a small district or in the world-wide study of an order or a group of families - became constantly more marked in systematic work.
Flinders Petrie began the systematic exploration of the ruins of Bedreshen, and in three seasons cleared up much of the topography of the ancient city, identifying the mound of the citadel and palace, a foreign quarter, &c. Among his finds not the least interesting is a large series of terra-cotta heads representing the characteristic features of the foreigners who thronged the bazaars of Memphis.
(1886); "Report of Geological Exploration of Shores of Lake Baikal," in Zapiski of East Siberian Branch of Russ.
In later editions the title of this book was altered to Die Osmanen and die spanische Monarchic. It was now his ambition to continue his exploration of the new world thus opened to him.
Travels and Exploration: J.
Casalis, Les Bassutos (Paris, 1859), a description of exploration, manners and customs, the result of twenty-three years' residence in the country; Minnie Martin, Basutoland: its Legends and Customs (London, 1903); Mrs F.
The next important exploration of Florida was that of Panfilo de Narvaez.
Important researches at Epidaurus, Eleusis, Mycenae, Amyclae and Rhamnus may be numbered among its principal undertakings, in addition to the complete exploration of the Acropolis and a series of investigations in Athens and Attica.
It has also participated in the exploration of Cnossus and other important sites in Crete.
Megalithic town walls were naturally common in that stony land, Palestine, and very typical specimens of them were found in the Palestine Exploration Fund's excavations at Bethshemesh (`Ain Shems) directed by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 29 whose work also threw new light on the phenomenon of the appearance in Palestine between the 12th and 10th centuries B.C. of subMycenaean (Greek) pottery, which can only be ascribed to the Philistines, whose historical position as a foreign invading force from the Aegean area (Lycia and Crete-Kaphtor) is now entirely vindicated.
Gardiner and Cowley of the earliest Semitic script in the hieroglyphic signs found in Sinai.33 Since the war a new British school of archaeology in Jerusalem has been founded under the direction of Prof. Garstang, who has begun for the Palestine Exploration Fund excavations at Ascalon, which have resulted in the discovery of interesting late buildings 34 and this year (1921) in that of a statue of Herod the Great.
She was staring at him when his visual exploration was over.
Scientific exploration began in 1849, and systematic geological investigation about 1875.
Bliss when making his exploration of Jerusalem.
In South America scientific exploration was active during this period.