In 1888 there was an epidemic of yellow fever.
- Among the most Interesting modern means of waging war against epidemic pests is that of introducing other epidemics among the pests themselvese.g.
The movement was strongly supported by King Humbert, whose intrepidity in visiting the most dangerous spots at Busca and Naples while the epidemic was at its height, reassuring the panic-stricken inhabitants by his presence, excited the enthusiasm of his people and the admiration of Europe.
(2) Much attention has been directed in scientific circles to the possibility of "stamping out" epidemic malaria by administrative measures.
It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
It is among the Invertebrata that epidemics of destruction are referred to, though we should bear in mind that it is only the difference in numerical proportion that prevents our speaking of an epidemic of elephants or of rabbits, though we use the term when speaking of blight insects; there is little consistency in the matter, as it is usual to speak of an invasion or scourge of locusts, caterpillars, &c. Insect injuries are very varied in degree and in kind.
The annual losses due to epidemic plant diseases attain proportions not easily estimated.
Numerous wild hypotheses as to changes in the constitution of the host-plant, leading to supposed vulnerability previously non-existent, would probably never have seen the light had the full significance of the truth been grasped that an epidemic results when the external laciors favor a parasite somewhat more than they do the host.
In Germany, in 1414, there was a recrudescence of the epidemic of flagellation, which then became a clearly-formulated heresy.
These lands are fairly healthy, the principal drawback being the virulent form assumed by simple epidemic maladies.
Severe remittents (pernicious or bilious remittents) approximate to the type of yellow fever, which is conventionally limited to epidemic outbreaks in western longitudes and on the west coast of Africa.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
Dram-drinking was spreading like an epidemic. Freethinkers' clubs flourished.
Yellow fever (which first appeared in Cuba in 1647) was long the only epidemic disease, Havana being an endemic focus.
The crops being still green, and nothing else available as forage for the horses, an epidemic of colic broke out amongst them, and in ten days the mounted arms had lost upwards of one-third of their strength; men died of sunstroke in numbers, and serious straggling began.
With horses only just recovering from an epidemic, they proved quite unequal to the task of catching the Cossacks, who swarmed round them in every direction, never accepting an engagement but compelling a constant watchfulness for which nothing in their previous experience had sufficiently prepared the French.
In 1733-1734 there was a dreadful epidemic of smallpox, which destroyed a great number of the people.
Horsesickness, a kind of malarial fever, which takes an epidemic form in very wet seasons, causes considerable loss.
The population of the country at the censuses of 1880, 1890 and 1900 was: From 1870 to 1880 there was little increase of population, owing to the great cholera epidemic of 1872-1873, and to many epidemic diseases among children towards the end of the period.
Wounds caused by projectiles, sabres, &c., are the special subject of naval and military surgery; while under the head of military hygiene we may include the general subject of ambulances, the sanitary arrangements of camps, and the various forms of epidemic camp sickness.
In the first place the 15th and 16th centuries were notable for the outbreak of certain epidemic diseases, which were unknown to the old physicians.
He resembled his Greek master in the high value he set on the study of the "natural history of disease"; in the importance he attached to "epidemic constitution" - that is, to the influence of weather and other natural causes in modifying disease; and further in his conception of the healing power of nature in disease, a doctrine which he even expanded beyond the teaching of Hippocrates.
A physician of Plymouth, John Huxham (1694-1768), made researches on epidemic fevers, in the spirit of Sydenham and Hippocrates, which are of the highest importance.
County Council have certain powers and duties of sanitary authority for the purpose of epidemic regulations.
The plague was scarcely stayed before the whole city was in flames, a calamity of the first magnitude, but one which in the end caused much good, as the seeds of disease were destroyed, and London has never since been visited by such an epidemic. On the 2nd of September 1666 the fire broke out at one o'clock in the morning at a house in Pudding Lane.
Coming to Italy during an epidemic of plague, he was very diligent in tending the sick in the public hospitals at Aquapendente, Cesena and Rome, and effected many miraculous cures by entre nous, a la vie, a la mort."
The study of epidemic and endemic diseases generally has brought to light an array of facts which very strongly suggest that an intimate association exists between the soil and the appearance and propagation of certain diseases; but although experiments and observations allow this view to be looked upon as well established, still the precise role played by the soil in an aetiological respect is by no means so well understood as to make it possible to separate the factors and dogmatize on their effects.
The earliest writers upon cholera emphasized its remarkable preference for particular places; and the history of each successive epidemic implies, besides an importation of the contagion, certain local conditions which may be either general sanitary defects or peculiarities of climate and soil.
In all these biographies there is internal evidence of confusion; many of the incidents related are elsewhere told of other persons, and certain of them are quite irreconcilable with his character, so far as it can be judged of from his writings and from the opinions expressed of him by his contemporaries; we may safely reject, for instance, the legends that he set fire to the library of the Temple of Health at Cnidos, in order to destroy the evidence of plagiarism, and that he refused to visit Persia at the request of Artaxerxes Longimanus, during a pestilential epidemic, on the ground that he would in so doing be assisting an enemy.
Had been crowded with wounded from the first, and now, owing to the persistent wet weather, smallpox and dysentery became epidemic. Towards the close of September rations had to be reduced, and the troops began slaughtering the cavalry horses for food.
The village was abandoned in or before 1758, owing probably to an epidemic of smallpox, and the fort was abandoned in 1759.