The declared aim of the author 1 was to offer a complete solution of the great mechanical problem presented by the solar system, and to bring theory to coincide so closely with observation that empirical equations should no longer find a place in astronomical tables.
Thus we acquire a bodyof empirical generalizations as to social phenomena, and then we connect the generalizations with the positive theory of human nature.
His writings, said to have numbered four hundred and fifty-three, were in the style of Aristotle, and dealt with philosophy, ethics and music. The empirical tendency of his thought is shown in his theory that the soul is related to the body as harmony to the parts of a musical.
In the 2nd century the school became closely connected with the philosophical sect of the Sceptics, whose leader, Sextus (200 B.C.), was an empirical physician.
A large number of cobalt compounds are known, of which the empirical composition represents them as salts of cobalt to which one or more molecules of ammonia have been added.
But the starting-point of the argument in question is the purely empirical evidence of a single fact or set of facts; it proceeds by way of analogy, not of strict demonstration; and it claims for its results nothing more than probability.
It is impossible here to give even a list of the names of the many observers who in recent times have made empirical study of the effects of growth-forces and of the symmetrical limitations and definitions of growth.
We may therefore conclude that the molecular volume depends more upon the internal structure of the molecule than its empirical content.
The value of k, however, does not keep constant so satisfactorily in the case of highly dissociated substances, and empirical formulae have been constructed to represent the effect of dilution on them.
So persistently does the human ear rebel against the division of the tetrachord into two greater tones and a leimma or hemitone, as represented by the fractions 9, 9, 26, that, centuries before the possibility of reconciling the demands of the ear with those of exact science was satisfactorily demonstrated, the Aristoxenian school advocated the use of an empirical scale, sounding pleasant to the sense, in preference to an unpleasing tonality founded upon immutable proportions.
Wolff tells us that six Latin works contain his system: - Ontology, General Cosmology, Empirical Psychology, Rational Psychology,.
It was found that the results were capable of expression by the empirical relation CaH2b= 104.3b+49'09m+105.47n, where C a H 2b denotes the formula of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on the Kekule formulae.
We may here notice an empirical rule formulated by Nietzski in 1879: - the simplest colouring substances are in the greenish-yellow and yellow, and with increasing molecular weight the colour passes into orange, red, violet, blue and green.
The properties of caoutchouc clearly show, however, that its actual molecular structure is considerably more complex than is represented by the empirical formula, and that it is to be regarded as the polymer of a terpene or similar hydrocarbon and composed of a cluster of at least ten or twenty molecules of the formula C5H8.
The isomerism which occurs as soon as the molecule contains a few carbon atoms renders any classification based on empirical molecular formulae somewhat ineffective; on the other hand, a scheme based on molecular structure would involve more detail than it is here possible to give.
Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
The selection of the topics of mathematical inquiry among the infinite variety open to it has been guided by the useful applications, and indeed the abstract theory has only recently been disentangled from the empirical elements connected with these applications.
This knowledge, however, is by no means positivistic or empirical, but on the contrary it is dialectical and a priori synthetic, brought about by the spiritual categories; and from it there constantly arise new problems, an ever new position of the fundamental categories.
Anything short of this is merely descriptive and empirical, and affords no rational basis for inquiry into the mode in which the distribution of plant-life has been brought about.
Area containing all dry land, the transitional area including the submarine slopes down to 1000 fathoms, and the abysmal area consisting of the floor of the ocean beyond that depth; and Mill proposed to take the line of mean-sphere level, instead of the empirical depth of moo fathoms, as the boundary between the transitional and abysmal areas.
He may, in fact, be regarded as the final exponent of that empirical school of philosophy which owed its impulse to John Locke, and is generally spoken of as being typically English.
In reasserting and amplifying the empirical conclusions of his predecessors, especially in the sphere of ethics, Mill's chief function was the introduction of the humanist element.
That is tp say, his gnosis neutralizes all that is empirical and historical, if not always as to its actuality, at least absolutely in respect of its value.
1906), fellow of Queen's College, in which the doctrine of the "English" or "empirical" philosophy was exhaustively examined.
Though nominalism is properly a medieval theory, the tendency has passed over into modern philosophy: the term "nominalist" is often applied to thinkers of the empirical, sensationalist school, of whom J.
Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.
The idea of transmutation, in the country of its origin, had a philosophical basis, and was linked up with the Greek theories of matter there current; thus, by supplying a central philosophical principle, it to some extent unified and focussed chemical effort, which previously, so far as it existed at all, had been expended on acquiring empirical acquaintance with a mass of disconnected technical processes.
Formulae which merely express the relative number of atoms of the different elements present in a compound are termed empirical formulae, and the formulae of all compounds whose molecular weights are undetermined are necessarily empirical.
The molecular formula of a compound, however, is always a simple multiple of the empirical formula, if not identical with it; thus, the empirical formula of acetic acid is CH 2 O, and its molecular formula is C2H402, or twiceTCH 2 O.
A consequence of this empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included in the same division.
2 Compound radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to characterize them.
It is easy to imagine how, as men grew in sensuous appreciation of pleasant perfumes, and in empirical knowledge of the sources from which these could be derived, this advance would naturally express itself, not only in their domestic habits, but also in the details of their religious ceremonial, so that the custom of adding some kind of incense to their animal sacrifices, and at length that of offering it pure and simple, would inevitably arise.
The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.
While, therefore, the logical development of algebraic reasoning must depend on certain fundamental relations, it is important that in the early study of the subject these relations should be introduced gradually, and not until there is some empirical acquaintance with the phenomena with which they are concerned.
Glanvill supported a much more honourable cause when he undertook the defence of the Royal Society of London, under the title of Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement of Science since the time of Aristotle (1668), a work which shows how thoroughly he was imbued with the ideas of the empirical method.
If ozone is passed into a solution of rubber in chloroform the caoutchouc combines with a molecule of ozone forming a compound of the empirical composition C 5 H 8 O 8.
The empirical data on which the hydrodynamical investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings.
Augustine was the first who ventured to teach that the catholic church, in its empirical form, was the kingdom of Christ, that the millennial kingdom had commenced with the appearing of Christ, and was;therefore an accomplished fact.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, named metalepsy (µeraXntks, exchange); and framed the following empirical laws to explain the reactions: - (1) a body containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced; (2) the same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without replacement, and then substitution according to (1) ensues.