Instruments of the siphon recorder type have been made to work both with and without electrification of the ink.
In the latter case, which is the standard practice, mechanical vibration of the siphon is substituted in the place of electrification of the ink, so as to eliminate the effect of atmospheric conditions which frequently caused discontinuity in the flow of ink.
An electrically neutral atom is believed to be constituted in part, or perhaps entirely, of a definite number of electrons in rapid motion within a " sphere of uniform positive electrification " not yet explained.
The Underground Electric Railways Company, which acquired a controlling influence over these concerns, undertook the construction of a great power station at Chelsea; while the Metropolitan Company, which had fallen into line with the District (not without dispute over the system of electrification to be adopted) erected a station at Neasden on the Aylesbury branch.
The former company combined with the Great Western Company as regards the electrification of, and provision of stock for, the lines which they had previously worked jointly, from Edgware Road by Bishop's Road to Hammersmith, &c. The Baker Street & Waterloo railway (known as the " Bakerloo ") was opened in 1906 and subsequently extended in one direction to Paddington and in the other to the Elephant and Castle.
The sign of the electrification imparted to the electroscope when so charged - that is, whether positive or negative - can be determined by rubbing the sealing-wax rod with flannel and the glass rod with silk, and approaching them gently to the electroscope one at a time.
Clerk Maxwell demonstrated, however, that all electric charge or electrification of conductors consists simply in the establishment of a physical state in the surrounding insulator or dielectric, which state is variously called electric strain, electric displacement or electric polarization.
In the next place we must notice that electrification is a measurable magnitude and in electrostatics is estimated in terms of a unit called the electrostatic unit of electric quantity.
The reader should, however, notice that what is generally called electric force is the analogue in electricity of the so-called acceleration of gravity in mechanics, whilst electrification or quantity_of electricity is analogous to mass.
This harmonizes with the fact that the real seat of the energy 3f electrification is the dielectric or insulator surrounding the charged conductor.'
- If there be any number of charged conductors in a field, the electrification on them being in equilibrium or at rest, the surface of each conductor is an equipotential surface.
By the surface density of electrification on a conductor is meant the charge per unit of area, or the number of tubes of electric force which spring from unit area of its surface.
Since the potential of a small charge of electricity dQ at a distance r is equal to dQ/r, and since the potential of all parts of a conductor is the same in those cases in which the distribution of surface density of electrification is uniform or symmetrical with respect to some point or axis in the conductor, we can calculate the potential by simply summing up terms like rdS/r, where dS is an element of surface, o- the surface density of electricity on it, and r the distance from the symmetrical centre.
The first term on the right hand side expresses the energy of the surface electrification of the conductors in the field, and the second the energy of volume density (if any).
Electrostatic voltmeters are also liable to have their indications disturbed by electrification of the glass cover of the instrument; this can be avoided by varnishing the glass with a semi-conducting varnish so as to prevent the location of electrostatic charges on the glass.
During his first period of discovery, besides the induction of electric currents, Faraday established the identity of the electrification produced in different ways; the law of the definite electrolytic action of the current; and the fact, upon which he laid great stress, that every unit of positive electrification is related in a definite manner to a unit of negative electrification, so that it is impossible to produce what Faraday called "an absolute charge of electricity" of one kind not related to an equal charge of the opposite kind.
The function of the apron is to prevent the escape of electrification from the glass during its passage from the rubber to the collecting points.
Long, the initial source of electrification being a single Daniell cell.
The charges thus deposited on the glass disk are carried round so that the upper half is electrified negatively on both sides and the lower half positively on both sides, the sign of the electrification being reversed as the disk passes between the combs and the armature by discharges issuing from them respectively.
If it were not for leakage in various ways, the electrification would go on everywhere increasing, but in practice a stationary state is soon attained.
The uses of an electroscope are, first, to ascertain if any body is in a state of electrification, and secondly, to indicate the sign of that charge.
To detect electrification it is best to charge the electroscope by induction.
Various improvements were made in the electrical machine, and thereby experimentalists were provided with the means of generating strong electrification; C. F.
1763) showed that quite small differences determined the sign of the electrification that was generated by the friction of two bodies one against the other.
Thus wearing a black and a white silk stocking one over the other, he found they were electrified oppositely when rubbed and drawn off, and that such a rubbed silk stocking when deposited in a Leyden jar gave up its electrification to the jar (Phil.
The leading idea which distinguishes his work from that of his predecessors was his use of the phrase " degree of electrification " with a clear scientific definition which shows it to be equivalent in meaning to the modern term " electric potential."
He found that the momentary dissipation was proportional to the degree of electrification at the time, and that, when the charge was moderate, its dissipation was not altered in bodies of different kinds or shapes.
De C. du Fay on the conductivity of some bodies for the electric agency and the dual character of electrification gave rise to the first notions of ., electricity as an imponderable fluid, or non-gravitative subtile matter, of a more refined and penetrating kind than ordinary liquids and gases.
Possessed opposite electricities, so that in charging the jar as much positive electricity is added to one side as negative to the other, led Franklin about 1750 to suggest a modification called the single fluid theory, in which the two states of electrification were regarded as not the results of two entirely different fluids but of the addition or subtraction of one electric fluid from matter, so that positive electrification was to be looked upon as the result of increase or addition of something to ordinary matter and negative as a subtraction.
The notion then formed of the nature of electrification was something as follows: All bodies were assumed to contain a certain quantity of a so-called neutral fluid made up of equal quantities of positive and negative electricity, which when in this state of combination neutralized one another's properties.
Faraday's notion as to the nature of electrification, therefore, about the middle of the 19th century came to be something as follows: - He considered that the so-called charge of electricity on a conductor was in reality nothing on the conductor or in the conductor itself, but consisted in a state of strain or polarization, or a physical change of some kind in the particles of the dielectric surrounding the conductor, and that it was this physical state in the dielectric which constituted electrification.