In order to operate at maximum efficiency, we must integrate our plans with theirs.
Hence assuming the mechanical efficiency of the engine to be and substituting !
Whether the intelligence and efficiency of the officials charged by the state with the handling of its railway system will be sufficient to make them act in the interest of the public as fully as do the managers of private corporations, is a question whose answer can only be determined by actual experience in each case.
We have seen that the efficiency of an electromagnetic engine is greatest when the current is indefinitely small, and then the rate at which it works is also indefinitely small.
The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.
- Engine Efficiency Curves.
To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.
Per pound, the maximum indicated horse-power is given by the expression I.H.P. maximum - CcA X778 1980000 where A is the area of the grate in square feet, and is the combined efficiency of the engine and boiler.
The lime deposit or " fur " is a poor conductor of heat, and it is therefore most detrimental to the efficiency of the system to allow the interior of the boiler or any other portion to become furred up. Further, if not removed, the fur will in a short time bring about a fracture in the boiler.
There are also directors of stores, of naval construction, of the medical service, and of the submarine defences (which are concerned with torpedoes, mines and torpedo-boats), as well as of naval ordnance and works, The prefect directs the operations of the arsenal, and is responsible for its efficiency and for that of the ships which are there in reserve.
The thermal efficiency is therefore 185/1013 =0.183.
Lines representing efficiency ratios of o 6, 0.5 and 0.4 are plotted on the diagram, so that the efficiency ratios corresponding to the various experiments plotted may be readily read off.
During the Russo-Japanese War he served in the Red Cross and in the Municipal Union for the organization of hospitals; he was left to take care of the Russian wounded after the battle of Moukden, and showed much dignity and efficiency in the performance of his arduous duties.
The whole social and political fabric of the British Empire depends upon the efficiency of its industrial system.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
The Conseil .suprieur devotes its attention to all questions touching the fighting efficiency of the fleet, naval bases and arsenals and- coast defence.
The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.
Influence on the efficiency of the instrument, and it was ultimately ascertained that a small central opening, with a thin air space extending across the face of the membrane, was best.
Collisions, on the other hand, are preventable, and derailments nearly so, and the records of deaths and injuries in this class in successive years are therefore justly taken as an index to the efficiency with which the railways are managed.
This position he held for thirteen years, during which period the highest efficiency of his men was reached, and outside the regiment he did good service to his arm by his writings.
The electric transmission of energy can be performed with an efficiency not reached by any other method, and the electric motor readily adapts itself to cranes.
Worm wheel gearing is of very high efficiency if made very quick in pitch, with properly formed teeth perfectly lubricated, and with the end thrust of the worm taken on ball bearings.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
The relative merit of the two systems depends upon the question how we can secure the best efficiency and equity in the application of the principles thus far laid down.
This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.
The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.
The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.
22 represents the thermal efficiency actually obtained in one of Adams and Pettigrew's experiments, namely, 0-I I, the pressure in the steam-pipe being 167 lb per square inch.
For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.
It is adapted for light, high-speed service, and noted for its simplicity, excellent riding qualities, low cost of maintenance, and high mechanical efficiency; but having limited adhesive weight it is unsuitable for starting and accelerating heavy trains.
And in this efficiency that is generated by specialization, wealth is created.
I branched off into this discussion of robots and nanites to give an idea of the kinds of massive gains in efficiency with declining costs.
But in the end the superior military efficiency of the Swedes and Poles invariably prevailed.
In the choice of a boiler of this description it should be remembered that rapid heating, economical combustion of fuel, and facilities for cleaning, are requisites, the absence of any of which considerably lowers the efficiency of the apparatus.
It is not economical to force the boiler to work at too high a rate, because it has been practically demonstrated that the boiler efficiency decreases after a certain point, as the rate of combustion increases.
- The combined engine and boiler efficiency has hitherto been taken to be o 06; actual values of the boiler efficiencies are given in Table XX.
From the diagram it will be seen that the corresponding efficiency of the ideal engine is about 0.18.
And you could feel good about it; after all, you would be increasing efficiency, not merely acting as a leech to the system.
However, there are limits to how much prosperity and efficiency the division of labor can create.
Operating at basically 5 percent efficiency, they are less than half as efficient as solar panels now on the market.
But the food would not only be produced with maximum efficiency; it would be extremely fresh and very healthy.
Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.
18 a bells was such that not more than two or three persons could be connected without seriously impairing the efficiency of the circuit for speech transmission.
The state, in taking over the Failways, did not exercise sufficient care to see that the lines and the rolling stock were kept up to a proper state of efficiency and adequacy for the work they had t,o perform; while the step itself was taken somewhat hastily.
A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
The ratio of this to the whole work done by the battery is (C - C')/C, so that the efficiency is increased by diminishing C'.
In the second column, the first column being added to give some idea of the rate at which the engine was working when the data from which the efficiency has been deduced were observed.
Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.
While these assets upgraded our efficiency, the LeBlanc house continued to be inadequate.
When a line has once been inspected and passed, it lies with the company to maintain it in accordance with the standard of efficiency it originally possessed, but no express statutory obligation to do so is imposed upon the company, and whether it does so or not, the Board of Trade cannot interfere.
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
When the initial pressure is 100 lb per square inch by the gauge the thermal efficiency drops to about nearly 15% with the same back pressure.
Lowering the cost of something is an increase in efficiency and an increase in the wealth of the overall system.
A very convenient rule is to allow one brake horse-power of motor for every to foottons of work done at the hook; this is equivalent to an efficiency of 661%, and is well on the safe side.
General Efficiency of Steam Locomotive.
Some idea of the business efficiency of the C.R.B., as it was familiarly called, may be gained from the fact that although almost $1,000,000,000 was expended on food and transportation, only about one-half of one per cent was required for overhead expenses.
Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.
This, besides reducing the efficiency of the furnace, introduces the danger of fire to crops and buildings near the line.