To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
Per pound, the maximum indicated horse-power is given by the expression I.H.P. maximum - CcA X778 1980000 where A is the area of the grate in square feet, and is the combined efficiency of the engine and boiler.
In the second column, the first column being added to give some idea of the rate at which the engine was working when the data from which the efficiency has been deduced were observed.
Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.
When the initial pressure is 100 lb per square inch by the gauge the thermal efficiency drops to about nearly 15% with the same back pressure.
During the Russo-Japanese War he served in the Red Cross and in the Municipal Union for the organization of hospitals; he was left to take care of the Russian wounded after the battle of Moukden, and showed much dignity and efficiency in the performance of his arduous duties.
Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.
The Conseil .suprieur devotes its attention to all questions touching the fighting efficiency of the fleet, naval bases and arsenals and- coast defence.
The ratio of this to the whole work done by the battery is (C - C')/C, so that the efficiency is increased by diminishing C'.
The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.
Worm wheel gearing is of very high efficiency if made very quick in pitch, with properly formed teeth perfectly lubricated, and with the end thrust of the worm taken on ball bearings.
A very convenient rule is to allow one brake horse-power of motor for every to foottons of work done at the hook; this is equivalent to an efficiency of 661%, and is well on the safe side.
Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.
It involves many novel features: the receiving electromagnet is of peculiar construction and remarkable efficiency and the transmitting apparatus has a contrivance to prevent unintentional repetitions of a letter through the operator holding his finger too long on a key.
Influence on the efficiency of the instrument, and it was ultimately ascertained that a small central opening, with a thin air space extending across the face of the membrane, was best.
A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
The relative merit of the two systems depends upon the question how we can secure the best efficiency and equity in the application of the principles thus far laid down.
Whether the intelligence and efficiency of the officials charged by the state with the handling of its railway system will be sufficient to make them act in the interest of the public as fully as do the managers of private corporations, is a question whose answer can only be determined by actual experience in each case.
When a line has once been inspected and passed, it lies with the company to maintain it in accordance with the standard of efficiency it originally possessed, but no express statutory obligation to do so is imposed upon the company, and whether it does so or not, the Board of Trade cannot interfere.
Collisions, on the other hand, are preventable, and derailments nearly so, and the records of deaths and injuries in this class in successive years are therefore justly taken as an index to the efficiency with which the railways are managed.
General Efficiency of Steam Locomotive.
This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.
This, besides reducing the efficiency of the furnace, introduces the danger of fire to crops and buildings near the line.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
Hence assuming the mechanical efficiency of the engine to be and substituting !
Per hour, the tractive force falls to 7400 lb, and this cannot be increased except by increasing the rate of combustion (neglecting any small changes due to a change in the efficiency 7 Knowing the magnitude of R, the draw-bar pull, and hence the weight of vehicle the engine can haul at this speed, can be estimated if the resistances are known.
The thermal efficiency is therefore 185/1013 =0.183.
The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.
- Engine Efficiency Curves.