Petra (q.v.) or Sela` was the ancient capital of Edom; the Nabataeans must have occupied the old Edomite country, and succeeded to its commerce, after the Edomites took advantage of the Babylonian captivity to press forward into southern Judaea.'
Saul, whose chief herdsman, Doeg, was an Edomite (I Sam.
There are links, also, which unite Moses with Kenite, Rechabite, Calebite and Edomite families, and the Levitical names themselves are equally connected with the southern tribes - of Judah and Simeon and with the Edomites.4 It is to be inferred, therefore, that some relationship subsisted, or was thought to subsist, among (i) the Levites, (2) clans actually located in the south of Palestine, and (3) families whose names and traditions point to a southern origin.
2 The name Korah itself is elsewhere Edomite (Gen.
Naphtali and Dan are "brothers," perhaps partly on geographical grounds, but Dan also had a seat in the south (south-west of Ephraim), and the name of the "mother" Bilhah is apparently connected with Bilhan, an Edomite and also a Benjamite name (Gen.
Hence it is noteworthy that the late editor of Judges has given the first place to Othniel, a Kenizzite, and therefore of Edomite affinity, though subsequently reckoned as a Judaean (Judg i.
To a certain extent it would seem that even as Chronicles (q.v.) has passed through the hands of one who was keenly interested in the Temple service, so the other historical books have been shaped not only by the late priestly writers (symbolized in literary criticism by P), but also by rather earlier writers, also of priestly sympathies, but of " southern " or half-Edomite affinity.
Edomite) unceasingly opposed him.
There is much that is suggestive, for example, in the relation between the " postexilic " additions to the prophecies and their immediately earlier form; or in the singular prominence of the Judaean family of Perez (its elevation over Zerah, a half-Edomite family, Gen.
Recent discoveries near Tell Sandahannah (or Mareshah) have revealed the presence of North Arabian (Edomite) names about the 2nd century B.C.'
If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Edomite, in another as an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Judah or' possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite.
The chronicler's account of his war against Moab, Ammon and Edomite tribes (2 Chron.
The Edomite revolt under Jehoram of Judah becomes the penalty for the king's apostasy (2 Chron.
We learn, also, that Hadad, a young Edomite prince, had escaped the sanguinary campaign in the reign of David (2 Sam.
8); he appears to have been represented as a Horite or Edomite (cp. the name Lotan, Gen.
An Edomite list of kings includes Bela (cf.
Israel at the death of Jeroboam was rent by divided factions, whereas Judah (under Uzziah) has now become a powerful kingdom, controlling both Philistia and the Edomite port of Elath on the gulf of `Akaba.
(For the Edomite gods, see Edom.) The name is known in the form Ya'u in north Syria (8th century), and, so far as the Israelite kings are concerned, appears first in the family of Ahab.
But the Judaean historians have successfully concealed the course of events, although, as has long been recognized, there was some movement upwards from the south of Judah of groups closely tion of related to Edomite and kindred peoples of South New Palestine and Northern Arabia.
To be largely of half-Edomite blood.
14, 20-24), a Judah consisting of fragments of an older stock replenished with families of South Palestinian, Edomite and North Arabian affinity.
This half-Edomite population, recognizable also in Benjamin, manifests its presence in the official lists, and more especially in the ecclesiastical bodies inaugurated by David, from whose time the supremacy of this Judah is dated.
This retrospect of the Judaean kingdom must be taken with the following books, where the crucial features are (a) the presence (c. 444) of an aristocracy, partly (at all events) of half-Edomite affinity, before the return of any important body of exiles (Neh.
Accord with certain details in 1 Samuel, and appear to refer to a half-Edomite Judah in David's time (c. 1000 B.e.).
Meyer, on the basis of a larger induction, has pointed out the relation of this Judah to a large group of Edomite or Edomite-Ishmaelite tribes.
When the whole body of evidence is viewed comprehensively, it would seem that there was some movement northwards of semi-Edomite blood, tradition and literature, the date of which may be placed during the internal disorganization of Palestine, and presumably in the 6th century.
Note also the view that the grand book of Job has an Edomite background.
For an Edomite invasion between 586 and the Greek period, see also H.
The oldest nucleus of historical tradition appears to belong to Samaria, but it has been adjusted to other standpoints or interests, which are apparently connected partly with the half-Edomite and partly with the old indigenous Judaean stock.'
Unfortunately the events of his age are shrouded in obscurity, but one can recognize the return of exiles from Babylon to Jerusalem and its environs - now half-Edomite - and various internal rivalries which culminate in the Samaritan schism.'
Its standpoint, too, varies, the phases being now northern or wider Israelite, now half -Edomite or Judaean, and now anti-Samarian.
Not only are the standpoints of local interest (Samaria, Benjamin, Judah and the half-Edomite Judah being involved), but there are remarkable developments in the ecclesiastical bodies (Zadokites of Jerusalem, country and half-Edomite priests, Aaronites) which have influenced both the writing and the revision of the sources (see Levites).
The chief Edomite cities extended from north to south on or adjoining an important trade-route (see below); they include Bozrah (Buseire), Shobek, Petra (the capital), and Ma`an; farther to the south lay the important seaports Ezion-Geber (mod.
Of the escape of the Edomite prince Hadad, and of his residence in Egypt, a twofold account is 1 See further, E.
The account of the ferocious slaughter of the priests of Nob at Saul's command by Doeg the Edomite is a secondary tradition and probably of late origin (1 Sam.
6 sqq.), and at this stage Edomite history becomes more prominent.
25-30), but it is uncertain whether the Edomite occupation was earlier (a fusion being assumed) or later, or whether the passage may be untrustworthy.
39 seq.), as foretold, obviously alludes to some successful Edomite revolt.
In view of the evidence for the advanced culture of early Arabia, the question of Edom is extremely suggestive, and although speculation at this stage would be premature, it is interesting to observe that Edomite and allied tribes were famed for their wisdom,' and that apart from the possibility of Arabian influence upon Israelite culture, the influence of Midian and related tribes is certain from the traditions of Moses and of his work (see Jethro; Kenites; Moses), and the Edomite district was a traditional home of Yahweh himself (Deut.
It should be added, however, that the Edomite names and other evidence point to the cult of other gods, viz.