Institutions possessing a special character are the monti frumentarii, public grain deposits, founded for the purpose of supplying peasant proprietors with seed corn, debts being paid in kind with interest after harvest.
The superiority which is claimed for Burton ales is attributed to the use of well-water impregnated with sulphate of lime derived from the gypseous deposits of the district.
High, rich in hematite iron ore; valuable limestone deposits are found some 30 m.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
The earlier deposits of that sea now rise to the surface in Brittany, the Ardennes, the Montagne Noire and the Cvennes, and in all these regions they arc intensely folded.
Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
Other OresThe mining of zinc the chief deposits of which are at Malines (Gard), Les Bormettes ~Var) and Planioles (Lot), and of lead, produced especially at Chaliac (Ardche), ranks next in importance to that of iron.
The same deposits have also yielded remains of extinct types of kangaroo, some of gigantic size, constituting the genera Sthenurus, Procoptodon and Palorchestes.
From the Oligocene deposits of France and southern England have been obtained numerous remains of opossums referable to the American family Didelphyidae.
The same deposits have yielded remains of small mammals whose dentition approximates more nearly to that of either polyprotodont marsupials or insectivores; and these may be conveniently noticed here without prejudice to their true affinities.
As the general level of the country is raised by successive alluvial deposits, the more ancient river-beds become buried, but being still connected with the newer rivers at some point or other, they continue to absorb water.
The Devonian system includes a complex series of deposits, which are of most interest in eastern Australia.
The mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and cf Branxton and other localities in New South Wales.
The age of the glacial deposits is later than the Glossopteris flora and occurs early in the time of the Gangamopteris flora.
The Permian deposits are best developed in New South Wales and Tasmania, where their characters show the continuation of the Carboniferous conditions.
They are also preserved in basins on the western plateau, as shown by brown coal deposits passed through in the Lake Phillipson bore.
The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.
Similar deposits, of approximately the same age, occur in Tasmania and New Zealand; and at about the same time there began the Kainozoic volcanic period of Australasia.
Farther east the sea was interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong.
These marine deposits are not found anywhere along the eastern coast of Australia; but they occur, and reach about the same height above sea-level, in New Guinea, and are widely developed in New Zealand.
For many years Western Australia was considered to be destitute of mineral deposits of any value, but it is now known that a rich belt of mineral country extends from north to south.
Gold is obtained chiefly from quartz reefs, but there are still some important alluvial deposits being worked.
Iodide and chloro-bromide of silver, and argentiferous Silver lead ores, the largest deposits of the metal being found in the last-mentioned form.
For a number of years, however, the mine has been suffered to remain untouched, as the deposits originally worked were found to be depleted.
The principal deposits of copper in New South Wales are found in the central part of the state between the Macquarie, Darling and Bogan rivers.
Deposits have also been found in the New England and southern districts, as well as at Broken Hill, showing that the mineral is widely distributed throughout the state.
In Western Australia copper deposits have been worked for some years.
The yield of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1890 extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland district - at Omeo and Tarwin.
In unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available.
Extensive deposits, which are being developed successfully, occur in Tasmania, it being estimated that there are, within easy shipping facilities, 17,000,000 tons of ore.
The sedimentary deposits include slate, limestone and sandstone.
The descent from the summits of the range into the plain is somewhat less abrupt on the western than it is on the eastern side, and between the foot of the mountains and the Strait of Malacca the largest known alluvial deposits of tin are situated.
The Chinese difficulty, so far as the mining population was concerned, was solved by the exhaustion of the extensive alluvial deposits; the miners' prejudice against the race, however, still exists, though they are no longer serious competitors, and the laws of some of the states forbid any Chinese to engage in mining without the express authority in writing of the minister of mines.
The building societies and financial institutions in receipt of deposits, or so many of them as were on an unsound footing, failed at an early period of the depression, so also did the weaker banks.
There was distrust in the minds of the depositors, especially those whose holdings were small, and most of the banks were, at a very early period, subjected to the strain of repaying a large proportion of their deposits as they fell due.
During the crisis banks having a paid-up capital and reserves of 5,000,000 and deposits of 53,000,000 closed their doors.
Near Lithgow extensive deposits of limonite, or clay-band ore, are interbedded with coal.
Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales.
Little, however, has been done to utilize the deposits, the demands of the colonial markets being extremely limited.
Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed.
Large deposits of alum occur close to the village of Bulladelah, 30 m.