26, Economic Resources of the Northern Black Hills, 1904), and of the South Dakota School of Mines (Bulletin No.
North Dakota and Manitoba.
South Dakota in 1889 had only 15,717 acres of irrigated land.
In 1890 the mileage of South Dakota was 2610 m., in 1900, 2961 m., and in 1909, 3776 m.
He was chairman of the committee on territories, and took an active part in urging the admission as states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Idaho and Montana, which finally came into the Union during his presidency.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
Wortman and C. Earle, "Ancestors of the Tapir from the Lower Miocene of Dakota," Bull.
By South and North Dakota - the Red River (commonly called the Red River of the North) separating it from the latter state - on the N.
The rapid settling of the state drove its native fauna, which comprised buffalo, deer, moose, bear, lynx and wolves, in great numbers into the northern sections, westward into Dakota, or across the Canadian border.
Little Crow and his followers kept up desultory raids from the Dakota country, during one of which in July 1863 he lost his life.
The derivation of Assiniboia is from two Ojibway words, assini meaning a stone, and the termination "to cook by roasting"; from these came a name first applied to a Dakota or Sioux tribe living on the Upper Red river; afterwards when this tribe separated from the Dakotas, its name was given to the branch of the Red river which the tribe visited, the river being known as the Assiniboine and the tribe as Assiniboin.
By North Dakota and South Dakota; S.
That part which lies east of the mountains was included in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and became successively a part of Missouri Territory in 1812, of Nebraska Territory in 1854, of Dakota Territory in 1861 and of Idaho Territory in 1863; that which lies west of the mountains became successively a part of Oregon Territory in 1848, of Washington Territory in 1853 and of Idaho Territory in 1863.
In 1884, partly because his political life seemed at least for the immediate present to be at an end, partly on account of the freedom and activity of out-of-door life, he bought two cattle ranches near Medora on the Little Missouri river in North Dakota, where he lived for two years, becoming intimately associated with the life and spirit of the western portion of the United States.
'SOUTH DAKOTA, one of the North Central states of the American Union, lying between 42° 28' and 45° 57' N.
By North Dakota; E.
The greater part of the James River Valley lies in the bed of the extinct Lake Dakota, which was once a very narrow body of water extending northward from about the latitude of the present town of Mitchell for a short distance into what is now North Dakota.
To its junction with the Big Sioux river separates South Dakota from Nebraska.
The Big Sioux river rises in the Coteau des Prairies in the north-east and flows almost directly south for a distance of 300 m., in the lower part of its course forming the boundary between South Dakota and Iowa.
To the west of this stream and almost parallel with it is the James or Dakota river, which rises in North Dakota and follows a general course southward until it joins the Missouri river near Yankton.
The portion of South Dakota east of the Missouri river is dotted with numerous lakes, ranging from small ponds to bodies of water from Io to 15 m.
Agriculture is the leading industry in South Dakota; in 1900 out of 137,156 persons engaged in occupations, 82,857 followed agricultural pursuits.
Of the total product value in 18 99, 7 8.3% was represented by cereals, South Dakota ranking sixteenth among the states in cereal production.
Valued at $42,829,000, South Dakota ranking third among the states.
The minerals of South Dakota, of which gold is the most important, are chiefly found in the Black Hills region.
Manufacturing in South Dakota is of little importance and is confined chiefly to articles for home consumption.
The railway mileage of Dakota in 1870 (before the present states of South and North Dakota were erected) was only 75 m., and in 1880, 1225 m.
The total population of South Dakota in 1890 (the date of the first Federal census taken since its separate existence as a state) was 328,808, and in 1900 it was 401,570; the increase from 1890 to 1900 being (exclusive of persons on Indian reservations) 16.8%.
South Dakota was the first American state to adopt the initiative and referendum.
South Dakota long bore a notorious reputation for the laxity of its divorce laws.
Denominational colleges are Yankton College (1882) and Redfield College (1887), both Congregational; Huron College (1883, Presbyterian), and Dakota Wesleyan University (1885; Methodist Episcopal) at Mitchell.
The first authentic explorations in what is now South Dakota were made by the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804 and 1806.
This included, roughly speaking, all of the land between the Missouri River and the Black Hills and between the White River and the Big Cheyenne and a strip extending north from the Black Hills to the North Dakota line between the 102nd and 103rd meridians.
The remainder was divided into six smaller reservations, Standing Rock, lying partly in North Dakota, and Cheyenne River, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Rosebud, and Pine Ridge in South Dakota.
On the admission of Minnesota into the Union in 1858, the eastern section was again left unorganized until the 2nd of March 1861, when the territory of Dakota was created, including the present Dakotas and portions of Wyoming and Montana.
On the 2nd of November 1889 President Harrison issued a proclamation declaring South Dakota a state.
In national politics South Dakota has been consistently Republican, except in the election of 1896, when, as a result of the hard times which followed the panic, the Populists and Democrats were able to form a coalition and carry the state for William J.
-For physical description see the Bulletins of the South Dakota Geological Survey (Vermilion, 1894 sqq.); N.
And for administration and history see Hagerty, The Territory of Dakota (Aberdeen, 1889); E.
Grantham, (ed.) Statutes of South Dakota (2nd revised ed., 2 vols., 1901); Doane Robinson, A Brief History of South Dakota (New York, 1905); J.
Kelly, Manual of the Township and Road Laws of South Dakota 1907; the state constitution, biennial reports of the auditor, secretary of state and superintendent of public instruction, and annual reports of the railway commissioners, insurance department and treasurer.
NORTH DAKOTA, one of the North Central states of the American Union, between 45° 55' and 49° N., and 96° 25' and 104° 3' W.
By South Dakota, W.
North Dakota has an extreme length, E.
North Dakota lies in the Prairie Plains and Great Plains physiographic provinces.
North Dakota has a mean elevation of 1900 ft.
The James river, flowing southward into South Dakota, is the Missouri's only important eastern tributary within the state.
The flora of North Dakota is typical of a semi-arid country.
It was estimated that the fourth project, the lower Yellowstone, on the western bank of the river of that name, would furnish water for 66,000 acres of land, of which 20,000 lie in Dawson county, North Dakota, and the rest in Montana.
The fifth project, the Bowman, was to irrigate 10,000 acres in North Dakota and the northwestern part of South Dakota by storing the waters of the North Fork of Grand river.
In the acreage of this cereal in 1909 (according to the Year-book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture), North Dakota ranked first, and in the crop second among the states of the Union, its total yield being 90,762,000 bushels, valued at $83,501,000.
With the exception of lignite, which underlies a large portion of the western half of the state, North Dakota has few mineral deposits of commercial value.
Manufacturing in North Dakota is of small importance, being largely confined, with the exception of flour and grist milling, to the supply of local needs.
Among its many branches are the " Wheat Line," running from Kenmare, North Dakota, to Thief River Falls, Minnesota, and having a length of 251 m.
Another state could do so, however, and in 1904, certain creditors having given ten of their bonds to South Dakota, the case of South Dakota versus North Carolina came before the Supreme Court.
Still, the presence of dicotyledonous leaves, such as Magnolia alternans, in the Atanakerdluk strata, proves their close alliance with the Dakota series of the United States.
These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).
Among them are: the Huntley project in Yellowstone county, begun in 1904 and practically completed in 1908, covering land formerly in the Crow Indian reservation, the irrigable area being 28,921 acres; the Lower Milk river project (and the subsidiary St Mary project), in Chouteau, Valley and Teton counties, by which the water of St Mary river 1 is stored and diverted to the headquarters of the Milk river to irrigate an area of 300,000 acres; the Sun river project (Teton, Lewis and Clark, Chouteau and Cascade counties), by which, as the ordinary flow of that river is already utilized for irrigation, the flood waters are stored and carried to the higher bench lands of the district; in Montana (Dawson county) and North Dakota (McKenzie county), the Lower Yellowstone project; and the Blackfeet project, to irrigate the Blackfeet reservation in Teton county.
Lake Traverse and the Big Stone Lake separate the state in part from Minnesota; the Big Sioux River forms most of the boundary between South Dakota and Iowa; and the Missouri river separates the state in part from Nebraska.
The climate of South Dakota is of a continental type.
Through South Dakota, sends four short branches intb the southern part of North Dakota.