All alike belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language almost identical with Servian, though written by the Roman Catholics in Latin instead of Cyrillic letters.
In the Moslem schools, which, in 1905, comprised 855 mektebs or primary schools, and 41 madrasas or high schools, instruction is usually given in Turkish or Arabic; while in Orthodox schools the books are printed in Cyrillic characters.
The fact that linguistically Serb and Croat had thus become interchangeable terms, only to be distinguished by the respective use of the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets, inevitably reacted upon the political situation, and served as an incentive to the movement for unity.
As a proof of the thoroughness and conscientiousness of Dlugosz it may be mentioned that he learned the Cyrillic alphabet and took up the study of Ruthenian, "in order that this our history may be as plain and perfect as possible."
The plain white cross, suspended from the Bulgarian crown, bears the name of the patron saint in old Cyrillic letters in the centre.
This alphabet, which is much more difficult to read than the bolder Cyrillic founded on the Greek uncial, survived for ordinary purposes in Croatia and in the islands of the Quarnero till the 17th century.
The Servians and Russians apparently always used the Cyrillic, and its advantages gradually ousted the Glagolitic elsewhere, though the service book in the old ecclesiastical language which is used by the Roman Catholic Croats is in Glagolitic.4 While the Carian and Lycian were probably independent of the Greek in origin, so, too, at the opposite end of the Mediterranean was the Iberian.
The special forms of the alphabet - the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic - which have been adopted by certain of the Slavonic peoples are both sprung directly frc m the Greek alphabet of the ninth century A.D., with the considerable additions rendered necessary by the much greater variety of sounds in Slavonic as compared with Greek.
The confusion of (3 with v necessitated the invention of a new symbol B in the Cyrillic, E in the Glagolitic for b, while new symbols were also required for the sounds or combinations of sounds z (zh), dz, ï¿½t (sht), c (ts); c (ch in church), ï¿½ (sh), u, i, y (u without protrusion of the lips), e (a close long e sound), for the combination of o, a and e with consonantal I (English y) and for the nasalized vowels e, q (nasalized o in pronunciation) and the combinations je and ja (English yg, ye).
In all these matters Glagolitic differs very little from Cyrillic; it has only one symbol for ja (ya) and e because both in this dialect were pronounced the same.
3 Archiv fiir slavische Philologie, 191 where the Glagolitic and the cursive Greek, the Cyrillic and the Greek uncial are set side by side in facsimile.
- Cyrillic and Glagolitic Symbols not given above.
[[Cyrillic L P]] u?
The liturgical language of the Uniat Slav Churches is Old Slavonic, and, so far as their rite is concerned, they differ from the Orthodox Slav Churches only in using the Glagolitic instead of the Cyrillic alphabet.
The pronunciation as hospodar of a word written gospodar in all but one of the Slavonic languages which retain the Cyrillic alphabet is not, as is sometimes alleged, due to the influence of Little Russian, but to that of Church Slavonic. In both of these g is frequently pronounced h.