Few countries have suffered more from a depreciated currency than Argentina.
He never took orders, but acted continually as the representative of the chapter under harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland; his medical skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522.
These notes are of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 lire; while the state issues notes for 5, 10 and 25 lire, the currency of these at the end of October 1906 being 17,546,967; with a total guaraotee of 15,636,000 held against them.
The constant fluctuations in the value of the currency, then much depreciated, intensified the distress and complicated the situation.
Intimately bound up with the forced currency, the railway conventions and public works was the financial question in general.
The rulers of this powerful house, whose silver dirhems had an extensive currency during the 10th century all over the N.
30, 1905) Unpaid bills, $3,332,594, Paper £8 22,950 The paper currency forms an important part of the internal debt, and has been a fruitful source of trouble to the country.
His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.
Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.
1 These ceased to have legal currency at the end of igoi; they were notes of x and 2 lire.
He therefore proposed to mak over the treasury service to the state banks, to increase th~ forced currency, to raise the stamp and registration duties and to impose a new tax on textile fabrics.
During 1905-13 he was a member of the national House of Representatives and as a member of the committee on banking and currency took an active part in framing the Aldrich-Vreeland Currency bill.
At this point we must also call to mind the wide currency given to the term theology by Abelard, and his editors or copyists.
Its affairs are administered by a governor-general, who is also commander-in-chief of the forces, by a bureau of civil government, and by three prefectural governors, below whom are the heads of twenty territorial divisions called cho; its finances are not included in the general budget of the Japanese empire; it is garrisoned by a mixed brigade taken from the home divisions; and its currency is on a silver basis.
This extension of the term to Christian burial-vaults generally dates from the 9th century, and obtained gradual currency through the Christian world.
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
The 20-piastre mejidie currency, in spite of the further enormous depreciation of silver since 1880, has scarcely varied in the Constantinople market, but has always remained at a discount of about 3% (between 108 and 109 piastres to the pound) under government rate; this is doubtless due to the fact that the demand and supply of the coins in that market are very evenly balanced.
In the last twelve years of the 19th century the altilik currency was almost entirely withdrawn, and replaced by fractional mejidie; a large proportion of the beshlik has also been withdrawn, but the metallik has not been touched.
For notes of hand or promissory notes see Negotiable Instru Ments and Bill Of Exchange, and for notes passing as currency see Banks And Banking, Bank-Note and Post.
The inhabitants of Yap are noted for possessing the most extraordinary currency, if it can he so called, in the whole world.
The Chinese government had bound itself in 1896 and 1898 that the imperial maritime customs services should remain as then constituted during the currency of the loan.
Since 1891 the national budgets have been calculated in both gold and currency, and both receipts and expenditures have been carried out in this dual system.
When the crash came and the national treasury was found to be without resources to meet current expenses, further issues of $110,000,000 in currency were made.
The first of these mistakes was a measure making (January 1885) the currency inconvertible for a period of two years.
On the 31st of August of the same year a series of proposals upon the currency question was submitted to congress by the president, whose real object was to counteract the too rapid appreciation of the inconvertible paper money.
This large increase is to be accounted for by the fact that during the Napoleonic rgime the government steadily refused to issue inconvertible paper currency or to meet war expenditure by borrowing.
Until 1893 the juridical status of the Banks of Issue was regulated by the laws of the 3oth of April 1874 on paper currency and of the 7th of April 1881 on the abolition of forced currency.
They were in January 1908 equal in value to the metallic currency of gold and silver.
Currency, and, eventually, fiscal reform.
On the 12th of April 1883 the forced currency was formally abolished by the resumption of treasury paynients in gold with funds obtained through a loan of 14,500,000 issued in London on the 5th of May 1882.
Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.