He soon, however, returned to Bulgaria, owing to the success of the counterrevolution led by Stamboloff, which overthrew the provisional government set up by the Russian party at Sofia.
The counterrevolution was chiefly the outcome of religious zeal played upon by the Mahommedan Union.
But the counterrevolution had no organized strength behind it.
A counterrevolution, planned in the royal palace at Belem and hence known as the Belemzada, was frustrated in November 1836; and in 1837 a Chartist insurrection was crushed after severe fighting.
But the great mass of the people were horrified at the irreligious character of the new regime, and a counterrevolution, fomented by Pope Pius VII., the grand ducalists and the clergy, broke out at Arezzo.