Had meanwhile in 1355 called together the Cortes (parliament) of the three estates (the nobles, the clergy and the representatives of the towns) for the first time after the model of Aragon.
The carta de logo (del luogo) or code of laws issued by her was in 1421 extended to the whole island by the cortes under the presidency of Alphonso V., who visited Sardinia in that year.
In 1478 the marquisate of Oristano was suppressed, and henceforth the island was governed by Spanish viceroys with the feudal regime of the great nobles under them, the Cortes being convoked once every ten years.
After remaining abroad three years, he returned to Spain to take his seat in the Cortes of 1869 after the revolution of 1868.
His "epic canto" on the destruction of his ships by Cortes (Las Naves de Cortes destruidas) failed to win a prize offered by the Academy in 1777, and was published posthumously (1785).
Hernan Cortes overran and conquered Mexico from 1518 to 1521, and the discovery and conquest of Guatemala by Alvarado, the invasion of Florida by De Soto, and of Nueva Granada by Quesada, followed in rapid succession.
Coast consists of bluffs, indented with bays and bordered by several islands, the larger ones being Cozumel (where Cortes first landed), Cancum, Mujeres and Contoy.
I 1519 a third expedition, under Hernando Cortes, the conque or of Mexico, came into collision with the natives of the isla d of Cozumel.
In 1525 the inland part of the peninsula was raversed by Cortes during an expedition to Honduras.
The c nquest of the peninsula was undertaken in 1527 by Francisco de Montejo, who en-, countered a more vigorous opposition than Cortes had on the high plateau of Anahuac. In 1549 Montejo had succeeded in establishing Spanish rule over barely one-half of the peninsula, and it was never extended further.
He entered the Cortes in 1854 as a Progressist deputy for Zamora.
After the coup d'Nat of Don Leopold O'Donnell in 1856, Sagasta had to go into exile in France, but promptly returned, to become the manager of the Progressist paper La Iberia, and to sit in the Cortes from 1859 to 1863.
He took office under Marshal Serrano during 1874, after the pronunciamiento of General Pavia had done away with the Cortes and the Federal Republic. He vainly attempted to crush the Carlists in 1874, and to check the Alphonsist military conspiracy that overthrew the government of Marshal Serrano at the end of December 1874.
Barely eight months after the restoration of the Bourbons in the autumn of 1875, Sagasta accepted the new state of things, and organized the Liberal dynastic party that confronted Canovas and the Conservatives for five years in the Cortes, until the Liberal leader used the influence of his military allies, Jovellar, Campos and others, to induce the king to ask him to form a Cabinet in 1881.
The Liberal party and Sagasta paid the penalty of their lack of success, and directly the Cortes met in March 1899, after the peace treaty of the 1 oth of December 1898 with the United States, they were defeated in the senate.
Cortes in 1519 is said to have received cotton garments as presents from the natives of Yucatan, and to have found the Mexicans using cotton extensively for clothing.
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
Montezuma presented Cortes with a map, painted on Nequen cloth, of the Gulf coast.
The portion of the southern plain between the bays of Cortes and Majana is the most famous portion of the Vuelta Abajo tobacco region.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
But as the colony had no voice in the Cortes, while the " special laws " were never passed (Cuba expected special fundamental laws, reforming her government, and the government regarded the old Laws of the Indies as satisfying the obligation of the constitution) the arbitrary rule of the captains-general remained quite supreme, under the will of the crown, and colonial discontent became stronger and stronger.
As for the representation accorded Cuba in the Spanish Cortes, as a rule about a quarter of her deputies were Cuban-born, and the choice of only a few autonomists was allowed by those who controlled the elections.
One important result of the campaign was that the Spanish Cortes nominated Wellington (Sept.
1441), who took for her second husband John, afterwards John II., king of Aragon; and the cortes of Navarre swore to recognize Charles (q.v.), prince of Viana, her son by this marriage, as king after his mother's death.
The idea of free government filled the people with enthusiasm, and the principles of a representative legislature were freely adopted, the first care being for the election of deputies to the Cortes of Lisbon to take part in framing the new constitution.
The Brazilian deputies on arriving in Lisbon expressed dissatisfaction with the Cortes for having begun the framing of the constitution before their arrival, for Brazil could not be treated as a secondary part of the monarchy.
An insulting decree was passed in the Cortes, ordering the prince Dom Pedro to come to Europe, which filled the Brazilians with alarm; they foresaw that without a central authority the country would fall back to its former colonial state subject to Portugal.
The provisional government of Sao Paulo, influenced by the brothers Andrada, began a movement for independence by asking the prince to disobey the Cortes and remain in Brazil, and the council of Rio de Janeiro followed with a similar representation, to which the prince assented.
The Cortes at Lisbon chose Bahia as a centre for resisting the independence, and large forces were sent thither.
It dates from the time of Cortes, who built for himself a residence there, and had the town included in the royal grant to himself in 1529.
The palace of Cortes is now occupied by the state legislature and by various public offices, and Maximilian's villa by a school.
The second son of Victor Emmanuel II., Amadeus, duke of Aosta, was offered the crown of Spain by the Cortes in 1870, which he accepted, but, finding that his rule was not popular, he voluntarily abdicated in 1873 rather than cause civil war.
He entrusted the government to the Jesuits; refused either to summon the Cortes or to marry, although the Portuguese crown would otherwise pass to a foreigner, and devoted himself wholly to hunting, martial exercises and the severest forms of asceticism.
Soon after 1540 he entered the household of the famous Cortes, who supplied him with most of the material for his Historia de las Indias (1552), and Cronica de la conquista de Nueva Espana (1552).
The pleasing style and novel matter enchanted the Spanish public, but the unmeasured laudation of Cortes at the expense of his lieutenants and companions brought about a violent reaction.
Directly the Cortes met they elected Espartero regent by 179 votes to 103 in favour of Arguelles, who was appointed guardian of the young queen.
The old marshal vainly endeavoured to keep his own, Progressists within bounds in the Cortes of 1854-1856, and in the great towns, but their excessive demands for reforms and liberties played into the hands of a clerical and reactionary court and of the equally retrograde governing classes.
The growing ambition of General O'Donnell constantly clashed with the views of Espartero, until the latter, in sheer disgust, resigned his premiership and left for Logrono, after warning the queen that a conflict was imminent between O'Donnell and the Cortes, backed by the Progressist militia.
O'Donnell's pronunciamiento in 1856 put an end to the Cortes, and the militia was disarmed, after a sharp struggle in the streets of the capital.
He refused to allow his name to be brought forward as a candidate when the Cortes of 1868, after the Revolution, sought for a ruler.
To all - to the Revolution of 1868, the Constituent Cortes of 1869, King Amadeus, the Federal Republic of 1873, the nameless government of Marshal Serrano in 1874, the Bourbon restoration in 1875 - he simply said: "Cumplase la voluntad nacional" ("Let the national will be accomplished").
He proclaimed for the constitution drawn up by the Cortes in 1812, which was unworkable, and which the chiefs of the conspiracy did not propose to restore.
When the new Cortes was elected in 1822, he was chosen deputy for his native city Oviedo, and the radicals selected him as president of the chamber on the 17th of February 1823.
The popular revolutionary tune of Spain, the "himno de Riego," is named after him, and his picture is hung in the Cortes, but he was a poor creature, and a bad example of the light-headed military agitators who have caused Spain much misery.
In 1868 he was created vice-admiral of the Italian navy, but, two years later, left Italy to ascend the Spanish throne, his reluctance to accept the invitation of the Cortes having been overridden by the Italian cabinet.
On the 16th of November 1870 he was proclaimed king of Spain by the Cortes; but, before he could arrive at Madrid, Marshal Prim, chief promoter of his candidature, was assassinated.
The great cathedral stands on or near the site of the Aztec temple (teocalli) destroyed by Cortes in 1521.
The palace occupies the site of the residence of Moctezuma, which was destroyed by the Spaniards, and that of Hernando Cortes, which was also destroyed in 1692.
Allowance should be made for the habit of exaggeration among the Spanish adventurers of that time, and also for the diplomacy of Cortes in magnifying his exploits to win the' favour of his king.
Catalonia, in 1714, was deprived of its cortes and liberties.