The surface of the calorimeter and the enclosure should be permanently blackened so as to increase the loss of heat by radiation as much as possible, as compared with the losses by convection and conduction, which are less regular.
The penetration of warmth from the surface is effected by direct radiation, and by convection by particles rendered dense by evaporation increasing salinity.
Wilson considers that convection currents in the upper atmosphere would be quite inadequate, but conduction may, he thinks, be sufficient alone.
A closed stove acts mainly by convection; though when heated to a high temperature it gives out radiant heat.
As will be seen later, modern experiments have confirmed the entire absence of any effect, such as convection would produce, to very high precision.
In these waters a vertical circulation is kept up by convection currents.
In measuring conduction of heat in fluids, it is possible to some extent to eliminate the effects of molar convection or mixing, but it would not be possible to distinguish between diffusion, or internal radiation, and conduction.
In the vast majority of cases the bacilli are in the lymphatic or the circulatory system, and aerial convection, even for a short distance, seems highly improbable.
This is termed convection, and is most important in the case of liquids and gases owing to their mobility.
It depends on the rapidity with which convection currents can supply heat from the interior to replace that radiated, and on a number of other nicely balanced circumstances which cannot well be calculated.
Great irregular variations in radiation and convection sometimes produce a remarkably abrupt change of temperature at a certain depth in calm water.
If heat passes "of itself" from a higher to a lower temperature by conduction, convection or radiation, the transfer cannot be reversed without an expenditure of work.
True electric current arises solely from convection of the atomic charges or electrons; this current is therefore not restricted as to form in any way.
The idea of convection of heat by an electric current, and the phrase "specific heat of electricity" were introduced by Thomson as a convenient mode of expressing the phenomena of the Thomson effect.
He also determined the effect of change of temperature distribution on the rate of generation of heat by the current; and on the external loss of heat by radiation, convection and conduction.