The most reliable test appears to be the nerve ganglia, which are more distinct from the intervening connectives than in other Annelids.
In the middle of the body, where the limits of the somites can be checked by a comparison with the arrangement of the nephridia and the gonads, and where the ganglia are quite distinct and separated by long connectives, each ganglion is seen to consist of six masses of cells enclosed by capsules and to give off three nerves on each side.
59) is sufficiently described in the letterpress attached to it; the pair of buccal ganglia joined by the connectives to the cerebrals are, as in most of our figures, omitted.
- There is a large ganglion lying in close contact with the pharynx, proximal to the crop and on its antero-dorsal side; in Bdelloidaceae at least it is united by short connectives with a smaller postero-ventral ganglion to form a nerve collar.
19), consisting of a cerebro-pleural ganglion-pair, united by connectives to a pedal ganglion-pair and a visceral ganglion-pair (parietosplanchnic) .
The cerebro pedal and pleuro-pedal connectives, however, in these cases are only separate in the initial parts of their course, and unite together for the lower half of their length, or for nearly the whole length.
At the point of the collar whence the nerve-cords arise are the cerebral ganglia; from these one pair of connectives passes to a pair of pedal ganglia, and another pair of connectives to a pair of pleural ganglia.
The central nervous system is constructed on the same general plan as in the other Arthropoda, consisting of a supra-oesophageal ganglionic mass or brain, united by circumoesophageal connectives with a double ventral chain of segmentally arranged ganglia.
Close to each cerebral ganglion is a pleural ganglion, and each is connected by a long nerve with the pedal ganglion of the same side, the two connectives of either side being united in the distal part of their course.
- Two stamens of Pansy (Viola tricolor), with their two anther-lobes and the connectives (p) extending beyond them.