It was largely owing to Consalvi's combined firmness and tact that the Concordat, as ultimately signed, was free from the objectionable clauses on which the First Consul had at first insisted.
His concordat with Florence (1516) guaranteed the free election of the clergy in that city.
His bull of the 1st of July 1519, which regulated the discipline of the Polish Church, was later transformed into a concordat by Clement VII.
It is, therefore, to the general interest that all these matters should be settled pacifically, by a common accord; and hence originated those conventions between the two powers which are known by the significant name of concordat, the official name being pactum concordatum or solemnis conventio.
For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.
A concordat may assume divers forms, - historically, three.
The most common in modern times is that of a diplomatic convention debated between the authorized mandatories of the high contracting parties and subsequently ratified by the latter; as, for example, the French concordat of 1801.
A third form was employed in the case of the concordat of 1516 between Leo X.
Of France; a papal bull published the concordat in the form of a concession by the pope, and it was afterwards accepted and published by the king as law of the country.
According to Maurice de Bonald (Deux questions sur le concordat de 1801, Geneva, 1871), who exaggerates the view of Cardinal Tarquini (Instil.
Nevertheless, there is no example of a concordat having been denounced or broken by the popes, whereas several have been denounced or broken by the civil powers, sometimes in the least diplomatic manner, as in the case of the French concordat in 1905.
The rupture of the concordat at once terminates the obligations which resulted from it on both sides; but it does not break off all relation between the church and the state, since the two societies continue to coexist on the same territory.
To the situation defined by concordat, however, succeeds another situation, more or less uncertain and more or less strained, in which the two powers legislate separately on mixed matters, sometimes not without provoking conflicts.
And ended in the concordat of Worms (1122), which was confirmed in 1177 by the convention between Alexander III.
In this concordat a distinction was made between spiritual investiture, by the ring and pastoral staff, and lay or feudal investiture, by the sceptre.
Analogous to this convention was the concordat concluded between Nicholas IV.
The lengthy discussions on ecclesiastical benefices in Germany ended finally in the concordat of Vienna, promulgated by Nicholas V.
Repudiated the Basel decrees, and the negotiations terminated in what was called the "concordat of the princes," which was accepted by Eugenius IV.
Concluded the arrangement,which took the name of the concordat of Vienna.
The situation was modified by the concordat of Bologna, which was personally negotiated by Leo X.
In the 17th century we have only to mention the concordat between Urban VIII.
Save in the provisions relating to ecclesiastical benefices, all the property of which had been confiscated, it reproduced the concordat of 1516.
The concordat was solemnly promulgated on Easter Day 1802, but the government had added to it unilateral provisions of Gallican tendencies, which were known as the Organic Articles.
For the Italian republic, between Napoleon and Pius VII., analogous to the French concordat; abrogated.
It is impossible to designate as a concordat the concessions which were wrested by violence from Pius VII.
New French concordat, in which Louis XVIII.
Endeavoured to revive the concordat of 1516; but it was not put to the vote in the chambers, and never came into force.
This first concordat was immediately suspended, and was not ratified until 1827; it is partially maintained.
Baudrillard, Quatre cents ans de concordat (Paris, 1905); Boulay de la Meurthe, Documents sur la negotiation du concordat et sur les autres rapports de la France avec le Saint-Siege (Paris, 1891-1905); Cardinal Mathieu, Le Concordat de 1801 (Paris, 1903); E.
Sevestre, Le Concordat de 1801, l'histoire, le texte, la destinee (Paris, 1905).
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
Appointed him one of the ambassadors who made peace with the Empire and drew up the Concordat of Worms (1122), and in the following year, with his later enemy Cardinal Peter Pierleoni, he was papal legate in France.
As minister of religion he was to a certain extent responsible for the concordat which again subjected the schools to the control of the Church: to a certain extent he thereby undid some of his work for the extension of education, and it was of him that Grillparzar said, "I have to announce a suicide.
But during his administration the influence of the church over the schools was really much less than, by the theory of the concordat, it would have appeared to be.
By the concordat of Worms, 1122, the emperor surrendered the right of investiture by ring and staff, and granted the right of election to the clergy.
Finally we must note that the Cisalpine now took the name of the Italian Republic, and that by a concordat with the pope, Bonaparte regulated its relations to the Holy See in a manner analogous to that adopted in the famous French concordat promulgated at Easter 1802 (see CONCORDAT).
Leopold of Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally abolished it by order from Vienna; he also concluded atreatyof semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for granting fresh privileges to the Church.
In 1516 a Concordat between Leo X.
By this Concordat, by an ordinance.
The Concordat with Francis I.
On the re-establishing of the Catholic religion on the basis of the new Concordat, promulgated 18 Germinal, year X.
Ascended the throne in that year, and though the constitution of 1849 recognized the principle of religious liberty, an era of reaction supervened, especially when " the concordat of 1855 delivered Austria altogether into the hands of the clericals."
The reader is referred to the article France (Law and Institutions) for the information respecting the various codes dating from this period, and to the article Concordat for the famous measure whereby Napoleon re-established official relations between the state and the church in France.
The promulgation of the Concordat (18th of April 1802) and the institution of what was in all but name a state religion tended strongly in the same direction, the authority of the priests being generally used in support of the man to whom Chateaubriand applied the epithet "restorer of the altars."
The prestige which the First Consul had gained by the Concordat was now lost by the overweening emperor.
At first the emperor succeeded in persuading the aged pontiff to sign the preliminaries of an agreement, known as the "Fontainebleau Concordat" (25th of January 1813); but, on its insidious character becoming apparent, Pius VII.
His protest against the Concordat of the 21st of February 1857 between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the Portuguese Padroado in the East, his successful opposition to the entry of foreign religious orders, and his advocacy of civil marriage, were the chief landmarks in his battle with Ultramontanism, and his Estudos sobre o Casamento Civil were put on the Index.
(399-420); that along with Isaac, patriarch of Seleucia (390-410), he obtained from the Persian monarch a concordat which secured a period of religious toleration; and that he arranged for and presided at the Council of Seleucia in 410, which adopted the full Nicene creed and organized the hierarchy of the Persian Church.
On the 18th of March 1123; its primary object being to confirm the concordat of Worms, and so close the conflict on the question of investiture.
The signing on the 28th of June 1859 of a concordat with the Holy See, by which education was placed under the oversight of the clergy;and the establishment of religious orders was facilitated, led° to a constitutional struggle, which ended in 1863 with the victory ' Frederick assumed the title of grand-duke on the 5th of :September 1856.