The diary kept by the young surveyor indicates that there were already many squatters, largely of German origin, along the South Branch of the Potomac. Christopher Gist, a surveyor in the employ of the first Ohio Company (see Ohio Company), which was composed chiefly of Virginians, in1751-1752explored the country along the Ohio river north of the mouth of the Kanawha, and the company sought to have a fourteenth colony established with the name " Vandalia."
The colony of Otago (from a native word meaning ochre, which was found here and highly prized by the Maoris as a pigment for the body when preparing for battle) was founded as the chief town of the Otago settlement by settlers sent out under the auspices of the lay association of the Free Church of Scotland in 1848.
COCHIN-CHINA,' a French colony in the extreme south of French Indo-China.
The last spurs of the mountains of Annam, which come to an end at Cape St Jacques, extend over parts of the provinces of Tay-Ninh, Bien-Hoa and Baria in the north-east and east of the colony, but nowhere exceed 2900 ft.
Besides a great number of small coastal streams there are four other rivers of secondary importance, all of which water the east of the colony, viz.
The Don-Nai, which rising in the Annamese mountains flows west, then abruptly south, reaching the sea to the west of Cape St Jacques; the Saigon river, which flowing from north-west to south-east passes Saigon, the capital of the colony, m.
The chief industrial establishments are those for the decortication of rice at Saigon and Cholon; they are in the hands of the Chinese, by whom most of the trade in the colony is conducted.
The colony is divided into four circumscriptions (Saigon, My-Tho, Vinh-Long, Bassac), at the head of each of which is an inspector of native affairs.
There are French tribunals of first instance in nine of the chief towns of the colony, and in four of these there are criminal courts.
Besides travelling through many states of the United States to deliver anti-slavery lectures, Lundy visited Haiti twice - in 1825 and 1829, the Wilberforce colony of freedmen and refugee slaves in Canada in 1830-1831, and in 1832 and again in 1833 Texas, all these visits being made, in part, to find a suitable place outside the United States to which emancipated slaves might be sent.
The pressure upon the Puritans increasing, Eaton, who had been one of the original patentees of the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1629, determined to use his influence and fortune to establish an independent colony of which his pastor should be the head.
In October 1639 a form of government was adopted, based on the Mosiac Law, and Eaton was elected governor, a post which he continued to hold by annual re-election, first over New Haven alone, and after 1643 over the New Haven Colony or Jurisdiction, until his death at New Haven on the 7th of January 1658.
Both places were named in honour of Sir Harry Smith, governor of Cape Colony 1847-1852, Aliwal (see above) being the village in the Punjab where in 1846 he gained a great victory over the Sikhs.
Carales was the only city with Roman civic rights in Sardinia in Pliny's time (when it received the privilege is unknown) and by far the most important place in the island; a Roman colony had been founded at Turris Libisonis (Porto Torres) and others, later on, at Usellis and Cornus.
The river has always had considerable military importance, and the colony of Volturnum (no doubt preceded by an older port of Capua) was founded in 194 B.C. at its mouth on the S.
Gyula-Fehervar occupies the site of the Roman colony A pulum' Many Roman relics found here, and in the vicinity, are preserved in the museum of the town.
It was the first colony ever founded by Rome - according to the Romans themselves, by Ancus Martius - and took its name from its position at the mouth (ostium) of the river.
The inhabitants of the colony were thus regarded as a permanent garrison, and at first freed from the obligations of ordinary military service, until they were later on obliged to serve in the fleet.
An agricultural colony, founded at Ostia after 1875, and consisting mainly of cultivators from the neighbourhood of Ravenna, has produced a great change for the better in the condition of the place.
From the time of its foundation as a Greek colony to the present day it has always been a considerable emporium of commerce, and it was for two centuries and a half the capital of an empire.
When members of the state went forth to found a new colony they took with them a brand from the Prytaneum altar to kindle the new fire in the colony; 1 the fatherless daughters of Aristides, who were regarded as children of the state at Athens, were married from the Prytaneum as from their home; Thucydides informs us (ii.
It was founded by the Umbrians, but in 268 B.C. became a Roman colony with Latin rights.
In 90 B.C. it acquired Roman citizenship, but in 82 B.C. having been held by the partisans of Marius, it was plundered by those of Sulla (who probably made the Rubicon the frontier of Italy instead of the Aesis), and a military colony settled there.
Servian settlements exist in various parts of northern Albania; there is a strong Bulgarian colony in the neighbourhood of Dibra and Ochrida; farther south, Mount Zygos and the Pindus range - the "Great Walachia" of the middle ages - are inhabited by Vlachs or Tzintzars, who possibly number 70,000.
The Plymouth colony was rather of the Congregational type, and the Massachusetts Bay colony rather of the Presbyterian.
Parma became a Roman colony of 2000 colonists in 183 B.C., four years after the construction of the Via Aemilia, on which it lay.
Cabot's colony at San Espiritu did not long survive his departure; an attempt of the chief of the Timbus to gain possession of one of the Spanish ladies of the settlement led to a treacherous massacre of the garrison.
After the ceaseless attacks of the Indians, the remaining settlers abandoned the place.
Seven years later (1580), when the new colony had been firmly established, Juan de Garay proceeded southwards, and made the third attempt to build a city on the site of Buenos Aires; and despite the determined hostility of the Querendi Indians he succeeded in finally gaining a complete mastery over them.
Unfortunately, in no part of the Spanish oversea possessions did the restrictive legislation of the home government operate more harshly or disadvantageously to the interests of the colony; it was a more effective hindrance to the development of its resources and the spread of civilization over the country, than the hostility of the Indians.
GovernmentThe principle underlying the administration of the French possessions overseas, from the earliest days until the close of the Ioth century, was that of domination and assimilation, notwithstanding that after the loss of Canada and the sale of Louisiana France ceased to hold any considerable colony in which Europeans could settle in large numbers.
In addition to Algeria, which sends three senators and six deputies to Paris and is treated in many respects not as a colony but as part of France, the colonies represented in the legislature are: Martinique, Guadeloupe and Reunion (each electing one senator and two deputies), French India (one senator and one deputy),Guiana, Senegal and Cochin-China (one deputy each).
Each colony and protectorate, including Algeria, has a separate budget.
In Indo~ China the governor-general has under his authority thelieutenantgovernor of the colony, of Cochin-China, and the residents superior at the courts of the kings of Cambodia and Annam and in Tongking (nominally a viceroyalty of Annam).
The town was to be the centre of this colony, where missionary work and religious liberty were to be promoted, and it remained the home of the governing board of the Moravian Church in the South.
Of Fiji, of which British colony it is a dependency.
Christianity was introduced into Mare by native teachers from Rarotonga and Samoa; missionaries were settled by the London Missionary Society at Mare in 1854, at Lifu in 1859 and at Uea in 1865: Roman Catholic missionaries also arrived from New Caledonia; and in 1864 the French, considering the islands a dependency of that colony, formally instituted a commandant.
In 59 B.C. a colony was established here by Caesar.
It was the birthplace of Simon Bolivar, and claims the distinction of being the first colony in South America to overthrow Spanish colonial authority.
About one-half of the colony of Queensland lies in the tropics, the remaining area lying between the tropic and 29° S.
In the northern parts of the colony the high temperature is very trying to persons of European descent.
Brisbane, however, is situated near the extreme southern end of the colony, and its average temperature is considerably less than that of many of the towns farther north.
The discovery of copper had a marked effect on the fortunes of South Australia at a time when the young colony was surrounded by difficulties.
The next recorded expedition is a memorable one in the annals of Australian history - the despatch of a British colony to the shores of Botany Bay.
Meantime, from the new colony of Adelaide, South Australia, on the shores of Gulf St Vincent, a series of adventurous journeys to the north and to the west was begun by Mr Eyre, who explored a country very difficult of access.
The colony, however, from 1821 had made a fair start in free industrial progress.
In the twelve years' rule of General Macquarie, closing with 1821, the colony made a substantial advance.
During the next ten years, 1821-1831, Sir Thomas Brisbane and Sir Ralph Darling, two generals of the army, being successively governors, the colony increased, and eventually succeeded in obtaining the advantages of a representative institution, by means of a legislative council.
Not only in these lucky provinces, New South Wales and Victoria, where the auriferous deposits were revealed, but in every British colony of Australasia, all ordinary industry was left for the one exciting pursuit.
The colony of Victoria was constituted a separate province in July 1851, Mr Latrobe being appointed governor, followed by Sir Charles Hotham and Sir Henry Barkly in succession.