The Chimney Section Grate Drying space for Slurry Plan FIG.
A convenient way of describing any type of engine is by means of numerals indicating the number of wheels - (I) in the group of wheels supporting the leading or chimney end, (2) in the group of coupled wheels, and (3) in the group supporting the trailing end of the engine.
Prominent among a great variety of song-birds and insectivorous birds are the robin, blue bird, cat bird, sparrows, meadow-lark, bobolink, thrushes, chickadee, wrens, brown thrasher, gold finch, cedar wax-wing, flycatchers, nuthatches, flicker (golden-winged woodpecker), downy and hairy woodpeckers, rose-breasted grosbeak, Baltimore oriole, barnswallow, chimney swift, purple martin, purple finch (linnet), vireos and several species of warblers.
Within it was also the gold lamp of Callimachus, which burnt for a year without refilling, and had a chimney in the form of a palm-tree.
At Northwich and Winsford scarcely a house or a chimney stack remains straight.
On all sides there were waste spaces with only stoves and chimney stacks still standing, and here and there the blackened walls of some brick houses.
Formerly they were allowed to burn to waste at the mouth of a short chimney place above the furnace top, forming a huge body of flame, which was one of the most striking features of the Black Country landscape at night.
Slabs are also manufactured, and, being readily cut, planed, dressed and enamelled, are used for chimney pieces, billiard tables, wall linings, cisterns, paving, tomb-stones, ridge rolls, electrical switch-boards and various other architectural and industrial purposes.
Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure or suction is measured against the air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are carefully closed and a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be produced equal to a wind of io m.
The old council-chamber is wainscoted in black oak, and contains a remarkable sculptured chimney-piece (1545) and fine wood carving.
In modern times pumping engines have replaced windmills, and the typical old Dutch landscape with its countless hooded heads and swinging arms has been greatly transformed by the advent of the chimney stacks of the pumping-stations.
The Palais de Justice, of the 18th century, on the site of the House of the Franc - the outside burghers of the Franc district admitted to the full privileges of citizenship - contains a fine carved chimney-piece (1530).
The former are used principally as casing, walls, pillars or other supporting parts of the structure, and includes ordinary red or yellow bricks, clay-slate, granite and most building stones; the latter are reserved for the parts immediately in contact with the fuel and flame, such as the lining of the fire-place, the arches, roof and flues, the lower part if not the whole of the chimney lining in reverberatory furnaces, and the whole of the internal walls of blast furnaces.
- One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.
18), the blast-pipe orifice B is placed at about the centre of the boiler barrel, and the exhaust steam is discharged straight into the trumpet-shaped end of the chimney, which is continued down inside the smoke-box.
Otherwise the chimney is built directly over the mouth of the pit.
The farther ends of the flues of several such kilns are connected with a chimney shaft.
The waste of heat in the chimney gases is accordingly greater; and further, the metallic shell is liable to be quickly burned away as a result of its contact at a high temperature with free oxygen.
Ultimately the waste gas is drawn off by a chimney, or sometimes by mechanical means.
Deep. B is the chimney-damper, C the grate, D the door for removing the slags, E the ash-door, F the inlet of the air-blast, G the upper, G 1 the lower outlet for the water-gas which is removed alternately at top and bottom by means of an outside valve, steam being always admitted at the opposite end.
There was no chimney; the fire was made in the centre of the house and the smoke escaped through a hole in the roof, or through the door as in Hebridean houses of the present day.
Furnaces are connected with the same chimney stack, the damper takes the form of a sliding plate in the mouth of the connecting flue, so that the draught in one may be modified without affecting the others.
In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.
First as regards the transmitting part, one essential element is the antenna, aerial, or air wire, which may take a variety of forms. It may consist of a single plain or stranded copper wire upheld at the top by an insulator from a mast, chimney or building.
The exhaust steam passing from the engine through the blastpipe and the chimney produces a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, in the smoke-box roughly proportional to the weight of steam discharged per unit of time.
Two richly and elaborately carved chimney-pieces in the hotel de ville merit special notice.
The neighbours said that the fairies caused the phenomenon, as the man had swept his chimney with a bough of holly, and the holly is "a gentle tree," dear to the fairies.
Before he could read, his mother taught him the history of the Old and New Testament by the assistance of some blue Dutch chimney-tiles.
In consequence the fire-gases, when arriving there by the chimney shaft (a), have already a good upward draught, and when circulatung round the muffle are at a lower pressure than the gases within the muffle, so that in case of any cracks being formed, no hydrochloric acid escapes into the fire-flues, but vice versa.
The tentacles border a broad, flattened peristome, from the centre of which arises the hypostome with the mouth at its extremity; the hypostome is at first low, but soon becomes a projecting, chimney-like tube.
In some cases the pupa upon emerging constructs a chimney of soil, the use of which is not known.
Even under the most advantageous application, that of evaporation of water in a steam boiler where the gases of the fire have to travel through a great length of flues bounded by thin iron surfaces of great heat-absorbing capacity, the temperature of the current at the chimney is generally much above that required to maintain an active draught in the fireplace; and other tubes containing water, often in considerable numbers, forming the so-called fuel economizers, may often be interposed between the boiler and the chimney with marked advantage as regards saving of fuel.
The more characteristic and useful birds include many species of the sparrow, such as the song, swamp, Lincoln's chipping and field sparrow; the bank, barn, cliff, white-bellied and rough-winged swallow, as well as the purple martin and the chimney swift; ten or more species of fly-catchers, including the least, arcadian, phoebe, wood pewee, olive-sided and king bird; about ten species of woodpeckers, of which the more common are the downy, hairy, yellowbellied and golden-winged (flicker); about thirty species of warblers, including the parula, cerulean, Blackburnian, prothonotary, yellow Nashville, red-start, worm-eating and chestnut-sided; and four or five species of vireos.
The gas-producers constructed by Messrs Siemens Brothers, from 1856 onwards, were provided with a kind of brick chimney; on the top of this there was a horizontal iron tube, continued into an iron down-draught, and only from this the underground flues were started which sent the gas into the single furnaces.
The burner gas is introduced at one end, the waste gases issue from the other, the movement of the gases being impelled partly by their own chemical reactions, partly by the draught produced by a chimney (or tower), or by mechanical means.
The products of combustion are sucked by the pull of the chimney through the farther or right-hand end of this chamber, out through the exit ports, as shown by the dotted arrows, down through the right-hand pair of regenerators, heating to perhaps 1300° C. the upper part of the loosely-piled masses of brickwork within them, and thence past the valves K and K' to the chimney, flue 0.
PLINLIMMON (Plynlimmon, Pumplumon, Pumlumon, Penlumon: Pumlumon is the name used locally: pump means five: lumon, chimney, flag or beacon; pen, head), a mountain of Wales of the height of 2463 ft., equidistant (about 10 m.) from Machynlleth and Llanidloes.
In any case whether natural or artificial means be employed, a mine can only be ventilated properly when it has at least two distinct openings to the surface, one an intake or " downcast," the other a chimney serving as an " upcast."
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.