There are well-known chemical works at Dombasle (close to Nancy) and Chauny (Aisne) and in Rhhne.
This was the principle of the chemical telegraph proposed by Edward Davy in 1838 and of that proposed by Bain in 1846.
Or consider a well-marked case of what we are in the habit of calling chemical combination.
This system is of much service in following out mathematical, physical and chemical problems in which it is necessary to represent four variables.
Properties.--All attempts to make helium enter into stable chemical union have hitherto proved unsuccessful.
Chemical industries: total - - - 110,000 49,000
Materia, matter), in philosophy, the theory which regards all the facts of the universe as explainable in terms of matter and motion, and in particular explains all psychical processes by physical and chemical changes in the nervous system.
In 1781 he followed this up with an introductory manual of Chemical Essays.
Landolt and others, made it at first appear that the change in weight, if there is any, consequent on a chemical change can rarely exceed one-millionth of the weight of the reacting substances, and that it must often be much less.
The law of reciprocal proportion, of which some examples have been already given, is part of a larger law of equivalence that underlies most of our chemical methods and calculations.
The fundamental conception that underlay all Berthelot's chemical work was that all chemical phenomena depend on the action of physical forces which can be determined and measured.
To this attitude he offered uncompromising opposition, and by the synthetical production of numerous hydrocarbons, natural fats, sugars and other bodies he proved that organic compounds can be formed by ordinary methods of chemical manipulation and obey the same laws as inorganic substances, thus exhibiting the "creative character in virtue of which chemistry actually realizes the abstract conceptions of its theories and classifications - a prerogative so far possessed neither by the natural nor by the historical sciences."
Besides recitation and residence halls, it has the Lawrence Hall Library (1846), containing (1910) 68,000 volumes, the Thompson Memorial Chapel (1904), the Lasell Gymnasium (1886), an infirmary (1895), the Hopkins Observatory (1837) and the Field Memorial Observatory (1882), the Thompson Chemical Laboratory (1892), the Thompson Biological Laboratory (1893) and the Thompson Physical Laboratory (1893).
Cotton spinning and printing works, cotton-mill machinery works, dye-works and chemical manufactures, and neighbouring collieries maintain the industrial population.
He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.
After studying at Marburg under Hermann Kolbe and at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen, he came to England in 1862 and obtained a position in a chemical works at Widnes, where he elaborated the practical application of a method he had devised for recovering the sulphur lost as calcium sulphide in the black ash waste of the Leblanc alkali process.
1842 -),whom he had met when he was at Widnes, and thus founded the great chemical manufacturing firm of Brunner, Mond & Co.
The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.
Over the surface of the plate and between it and the indicator there was passed, at a regularly uniform speed, in a direction perpendicular to the line of motion of the indicator, a material capable of being acted on physically by the sparks, through either their chemical action, their heat, or their perforating force.
Simultaneously Hermann, a German chemical manufacturer, discovered the new metal in a specimen of zinc oxide which had been thought to contain arsenic, since it gave a yellow precipitate, in acid solution, on the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen.
Some unions annually purchase large quantities ~cono of merchandise for their members, especially chemical mica.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
It is evident that if our experiments are solely directed to the verification of this law, they should, if possible; be carried out in a hermetically closed vessel, the vessel and its contents being weighed before and after the chemical change.
The above gives some idea of the evidence that has been accumulated in favour of the laws of chemical combination, laws which can be deduced from the atomic theory.
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
The most conspicuous building is the old ducal castle of Hohentubingen, built in1507-1535on a hill overlooking the town, and now containing the university library of 460,000 volumes, the observatory, the chemical laboratory, &c. Among the other chief buildings are the quaint old Stiftskirche (1469-1483), a Gothic building containing the tombs of the rulers of Wurttemberg, the new aula and numerous institutes of the university, all of which are modern, and the town-hall dating from 1435 and restored in 1872.
Oil-works jo,ooo Other chemical 1 industries 58,000 - -