The fortress was rebuilt, and after 280 served the Aetolians as a bulwark against Celts and Macedonians.
The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.
In the slow process of time they drove them into the most southerly corner of Australia, just as the Saxons drove the Celts into Cornwall and the Welsh hills.
They are described by Strabo as a mixed race of Celts and Illyrians, who used Celtic weapons, tattooed themselves, and lived chiefly on spelt and millet.
According to this authority, Gaul was at that time divided among three peoples, more or less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, the Gauls, who called themselves Celts, and the Belgae.
Prominent among them, and dwelling in the division occupied by the Celts, were the Helvetii, the Sequani and the Aedui, in the basins of the Rhodanus and its tributary the Arar (Saone), who, he says, were reckoned the three most powerful nations in all Gaul; the Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and Carnutes in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other Armorican tribes between the mouths of the Liger and Sequana.
In prehistoric times the southern coast of the Baltic seems to have been occupied by Celts, who afterwards made way for tribes of Teutonic stock.
Penrith, otherwise Penreth, Perith, Perath, was founded by the Cambro-Celts, but on a site farther north than the present town.
After a vain attempt to expel the garrison in 287, the Athenians regained their liberty while Macedonia was thrown into confusion by the Celts, and in 279 rendered good service against the invaders of the latter nation with a fleet off Thermopylae.
The stone knives, arrowheads, celts, hoe-blades, hammers, nails, awls, etc., associated with this pottery are of kinds which though simple and often crude in type are nevertheless not early, but date from the transition period to the age of metal and the earliest centuries of the latter period.
Celts, of the usual late neolithic type, were generally of green jasper; hoe-blades (looking almost exactly like palaeolithic haches a main) of chert or coarse limestone; hammers of granite; mace-heads, of identical type with the early Egyptian, of diorite and limestone; nails of obsidian or smoky quartz, often beautifully made.
The most striking difference between Zoroaster's doctrine of God and the old religion of India lies in this, that while in the Avesta the evil spirits are called daeva (Modern Persian div), the Aryans of India, in common with the Italians, Celts and Letts, gave the name of deva to their good spirits, the spirits of light.
Next they sailed up the Eridanus into the Rhodanus, passing through the country of the Celts and Ligurians to the Stoechades, then to the island of Aethalia (Elba), finally reaching the Tyrrhenian Sea and the island of Circe, who absolved them from the murder of Absyrtus.
Claudius Marcellus over the Celts (222).
The first fortification of the rock, at the confluence of the Save and the Danube, was made by the Celts in the 3rd century B.C. They gave it the name of Singidunum, by which Belgrade was known until the 7th century A.D.
The Romans took it from the Celts, and replaced their fort by a regular Roman castrum, placing in it a strong garrison.
The whole valley seems to have been originally occupied by Celtic tribes, who have left traces of their presence on the contents of tombs and in the forms of names (Moguntiacum or Mainz, Borbetomagus or Worms); but at the beginning of the historical period we find the Celts everywhere in retreat before the advancing Teutons.
It was the Roman patron and client relationship which had remained in existence into the days of the empire, in later times less important perhaps legally than socially, and which had been reinforced in Gaul by very similar practices in use among the Celts before their conquest.
This Neolithic race has consequently been nicknamed " Iberians," and it is now common to speak of the " Iberian " ancestry of the people of Britain, recognizing the racial characteristics of " Iberians " in the" small swarthy Welshman," the " small dark Highlander," and the " Black Celts to the west of the Shannon," as well as in the typical inhabitants of Aquitania and Brittany.
Hence it is suggested that the attack on Rome was merely an incident of the march of the Etruscans, driven southward by the invasion of upper Italy by the Celts, through Latium on their way to Campania.
Anglo-Saxons, Celts, and England and Wales Scotland Total.
Vii., stratagems of the barbarians (Medes, Persians, Egyptians, Thracians, Scythians, Celts); bk.
Yc,o f30vX1 7), named after the hill, is to be compared in origin and fundamental character with the council of chiefs or elders which we find among the earliest Germans, Celts, Romans, and other primitive peoples.
It has yielded four bronze swords, ten socketed spear-heads, forty celts or axe-heads and sickles, fifty knives, twenty socketed chisels, four hammers and an anvil, sixty rings for the arms and legs, several highly ornate torques or twisted neck rings, and upwards of two hundred hair pins of various sizes up to 16 in.
It is true that from the 4th century onwards it expanded beyond the borders of that empire to east and west, north and south; but the infant churches which gradually arose in Persia and Abyssinia, among some of the scattered Teutonic races, and among the Celts of Ireland, were at first not co-operating factors in the development of Christendom: they received without giving in return.
Beside him are the Celts Josephus Scottus and Dungal, the Lombards Paulinus and Paulus Diaconus, the West Goth Theodulf and many Franks.
The district which later bore the name of Venetia was inhabited, under the Roman Republic, by a variety of tribes - Celts, Veneti, Raeti, &c. Under Augustus, Venetia and Histria formed the tenth region of Augustus, the latter including the Istrian peninsula as far as the river Arsia, i.e.
By the age of Julius Caesar all the inhabitants of Britain, except perhaps some tribes of the far north, were Celts in speech and customs. Politically they were divided into separate and generally warring tribes, each under its own princes.
Towards both the south and west the Teutonic peoples seem to have been pressing the Celts for some considerable time, since we are told that the Helvetii had formerly extended as far as the Main, while another important Celtic tribe, the Volcae Tectosages, had occupied a still more remote position, which it is impossible now to identify.
Polybius and the authors who copy him regard the Bastarnae as Galatae; Strabo, having learned of the Romans to distinguish Celts and Germans, first allows a German element; Tacitus expressly declares their German origin but says that the race was degraded by intermarriage with Sarmatians.
Here he maintained himself as a captain of brigands, his lieutenants being two Celts named Crixus and Oenomaus, who like himself had been gladiators.
9) as a mixed race of Celts and Spaniards (Iberians); in either case the name represents a geographer's theory rather than an ascertained fact.
It is interesting to note how the Celts absorb Roman and still more Greek culture, even imitating foreign coins, and pass on their new arts to their Teutonic neighbors; but in spite of the strong foreign influence the Celtic civilization can in some sort be termed national.
Roman Period (from the 1st century A.D.).The period succeeding to La Tne ought rather to be called Romano-Germanic, the relation of the Teutonic races to the Roman civilization being much the same as that of the Celts to classical culture in the preceding period.
The Achaeans, or Hellenes, as they were later termed, were on this hypothesis one of the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi (Celts), who from time to time have pressed down over the Alps into the southern lands, successively as Achaeans, Gauls, Goths and Franks, and after the conquest of the indigenous small dark race in no long time died out under climatic conditions fatal to their physique and morale.
It was the irruption of the Celts, beginning in 278-277 B.C., which checked the Hellenization of the interior.
After the Norman Conquest, England would have subjugated the Celts and held Scotland by a tenure less precarious and disputed than they possessed in the western island.
Poor, distracted, threatened on occasion by the Celts on her flank and rear, anglicized Scotland preferred her poverty with independence, to the prosperity and peace which England would have given, if unresisted, but never could impose by war.
To the Celts of Scotland, or at least to those of the great subkingship or province of Moray, Duncan, not Macbeth, was the usurper.
Her reforms in church matters had apparently made her unpopular with the Celts, but under cover of a mist her body was conveyed to and buried at Dunfermline.
The Celts (apart from the claimant of the blood of Lulach and the house of Moray) placed Donald Ban on the throne; England supported Duncan (by primogeniture Malcolm's heir, and a hostage in England); there was division of the kingdom till Duncan was slain, and Edgar, son of Malcolm and Margaret, was restored by Edgar ZEtheling.
Is marked by war with the northern Celts, and by the introduction of English bishops of St Andrews, while the claims of the see of York to superiority over the Scottish church were cleverly evaded at Glasgow (David's bishopric), as well as at St Andrews, where English Augustinian canons were now established, to the prejudice of the Celtic Culdees.
We observe that the chief peers of Alexander, who signed the charter of his monastery at Scone, are Celts - Heth, earl of Moray (husband of the daughter of Lulach), Ma]ise of Strathearn, Dufagan of Fife, and Rory.
Malcolm the Maiden, before his early death in 1165, had put down the menacing power of Somerled, lord of the Isles, a chief apparently of mixed Celtic and Scandinavian blood, the founder of the great clan of Macdonald, whose chiefs, the lords of the Isles, were almost royal; Malcolm also subdued the Celts of Galloway, sometimes called Picts, but at this time Gaelic in speech.
An ill-kept truce of three years ended in October 1346, when David attempted to lead the whole force of his realm, including the levies of John, Lord of the Isles, and of the western Celts in general, against England.
As the Celts marched south the earl of Ross slew Ronald Macdonald, whose inheritance was claimed by John of the Isles.
Under his nominal rule, the Celts of the north and west, in 1385, became troublesome, while Robert's son, the Wolf of Badenoch, who was justiciary, with his own wild sons, rather fanned than extinguished the flames.
Next year Albany received the submission of Donald at Lochgilp in Knapdale, and the Celts were, for the moment, useless to their allies of England.
Was crowned, and at once made pact and alliance with the banished Douglas and the Celts of the west Highlands and the isles.
Was spoken of, but Kennedy would not meet the English, and in March 1463 the English treaty with Douglas and the Celts was ratified.
This has passed through three stages, the first being represented by solid castings, such as are most celts and other implements of the prehistoric time; the mould was formed of clay, sand or stone, and the fluid metal was poured in till the hollow was full.
Connexion has been traced between the early Libyan race and the Cro-Magnon and other early European races and, later, the Basque peoples, Iberians, Picts, Celts and Gauls.
The megalithic monuments of Iberia and Celtic Europe have their counterparts in northern Africa, and it is suggested that these were all erected by the same race, by whatever name they be known, Berbers and Libyans in Africa, Iberians in Spain, Celts, Gauls and Picts in France and Britain.
This iron needed no tempering, and the Celts had probably found it ready smelted by nature, just as the Eskimo had learned of themselves to use telluric iron embedded in basalt.
Both flanged and socketed celts occurred, the iron being much more numerous than the bronze.
The Celts who saw the world peopled with the spirits of trees and animals, rocks, mountains, springs and rivers, grouped them in classes like the Dervonnae (oak-spirits), the Niskai (water-spirits), the Proximae; the Matronae (earthgoddesses) 9 and the like.
It is the practice to speak of the dark-complexioned people of France, Great Britain and Ireland as " black Celts," although the ancient writers never applied the term " Celt " to any dark-complexioned person.
The Teutons, whose name is generic for Germans, appear in history along with the Cimbri, universally held to be Celts, but coming from the same region as the Guttones (Goths) by the shores of the Baltic and North Sea.
The Celts had firmly' established themselves by the 7th century B.C. and we know not how long before, the Bituriges (whose name survives in Berri) being the dominant tribe.
The Umbrians, who were part of the Alpine Celts, had been pressing down into Italy from the Bronze Age, though checked completely by the rise of the Etruscan power in the ioth century B.C. The invention of iron weapons made the Celts henceforth irresistible.