The wall of the tube is very thin and delicate, and does not seem to be composed of cellulose or any modification of it.
The formation of living substance is a process of building up from simple or relatively simple materials; the construction of its cellulose framework and supporting substance is done by the living substance after its own formation is completed, and is attended by a partial decomposition of such living substance.
Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
The smallest empirical formula for cellulose (q.v.) may certainly be written C6H1005.
The oldest and perhaps most reasonable idea represents guncotton as cellulose trinitrate, but this has been much disputed, and various formulae, some based on cellulose as C, 2 H200 10, others on a still more complex molecule, have been proposed.
The constitution of guncotton is a difficult matter to investigate, primarily on account of the very insoluble nature of cellulose itself, and also from the fact that comparatively slight variations in the concentration and temperature of the acids used produce considerable differences in the products.
The 1 The composition of the cellulose nitrates was reviewed by G.
In the recent methods the cotton remains in contact with the acids for two to four hours at the ordinary air temperature (15° C.), in which time it is almost fully nitrated, the main portion, say 90%, having a composition represented by the formula e C6H702(N03)3, the remainder consisting of lower nitrated products, some oxidation products and traces of unchanged cellulose and cellulose sulphates.
Soc., 1901, 23, p. 527), who, assuming the formula C24H4 6 O 20 for cellulose, showed how the nitrocelluloses described by different chemists may be expressed by the formula C24H4,..-z020(N02)s, where x has the values 4, 5, 6, ...
Cellulose sulphates are one, and possibly the main, cause of instability in guncotton, and it is highly desirable that they should be completely hydrolysed and removed in the washing process.
Strong or weak solutions of these substances also decompose it, producing some alkali nitrate and nitrite, the cellulose molecule being only partially restored, some quantity undergoing oxidation.
It is now known to have nothing in common with vegetable cellulose, but is regarded as one of the many albuminoid substances existing in the body under pathological conditions.
These are peculiar bodies which are found in the prostate, in the central nervous system, in the lung, and in other localities, and which get their name from being very like starch-corpuscles, and from giving certain colour reactions closely resembling those of vegetable cellulose or even starch itself.
D-Mannose, first prepared by oxidizing d-mannite, found in plants and manna-ash (Fraxinus ornus), was obtained by Tollens and Gans on hydrolysing cellulose and by Reis from seminine (reserve cellulose), found in certain plant seeds, e.g.
Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.
Sugar, starch and cellulose) by nitric acid, and also by the fusion of many oxygen-holding compounds with caustic alkalis, this latter method being employed for the manufacture of oxalic acid.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm of which does not secrete a cellulose cell-wall, and which requires for its existence proteid material obtained from the living or dead bodies of existing plants or animals.
P. 865), the agents of the transformation of cellulose into peaty substances are saprophytic fungi and bacterial ferments.
The industries of Konigsberg have made great advances within recent years, notable among them are printing-works and manufactures of machinery, locomotives, carriages, chemicals, toys, sugar, cellulose, beer, tobacco and cigars, pianos and amber wares.
Filtration in the chemical laboratory is commonly effected by the aid of a special kind of unsized paper, which in the more expensive varieties is practically pure cellulose, impurities like feric oxide, alumina, lime, magnesia and silica having been removed by treatment with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.
The wall of the hyphae of the fungus give in the young state the ordinary reactions of cellulose but older material shows somewhat different reactions, similar to those of the so-called fungus-cellulose.
While the fundamental constituent is a cellulose in many Mucorini and other Phycomycetes, in others bodies like pectose, callose, &c., commonly occur, and Wisselingh's researches show that chitin, a gluco-proteid common in animals, forms the main constituent in many cases, and is probably deposited directly as such, though, like the other substances, it may be mixed with cellulose.
The wall consists of a basis of cellulose, and in some cases readily breaks up into a definite number of plates, fitting into one another like the plates of the carapace of a tortoise; it is, moreover, often finely sculptured or coarsely ridged and flanged.
With reference to their chemical physiology, the gelatinization of the cell-wall, which is so marked a feature, is doubtless attributable to the occurrence along with cellulose of pectic compounds.
The other industries of the town, notably dyeing, stuff-printing and stamping, are very considerable, and there are also engineering and machine shops, chemical, cellulose, soap, and other factories, breweries, distilleries and tanneries.
But all cells which are permanent tissue-elements of the plantbody possess, in addition, a more or less rigid limiting membrane or cell-wall, consisting primarily of cellulose or some allied substance.
This consists of elongated cells with cellulose walls, which are locall~ thickened along the original corners of the cells, reducing the lumer to a cylinder, so that a number of vertical pillars of cellulose con nected by comparatively thin walls form the framework of th~ tissue.
The peculiar substance called callose, chemically allied to cellulose, is frequently formed over the surface of the perforated end-walls.
The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.
It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
The enormous masses of cellulose deposited annually on the earth's surface are, as we know,!
Such cellulose is gradually reconverted into water and carbon dioxide, but for some time nothing positive was known as to the agents which thus break up the paper, rags, straw, leaves and wood, &c., accumulating in cesspools, forests, marshes and elsewhere in such abundance.
The work of van Tieghem, van Senus, Fribes, Omeliansky and others has now shown that while certain anaerobic bacteria decompose the substance of the middle lamella - chiefly pectin compounds - and thus bring about the isolation of the cellulose fibres when, for instance, flax is steeped or " retted," they are unable to attack the cellulose itself.
There exist in the mud of marshes, rivers and cloacae, &c., however, other anaerobic bacteria which decompose cellulose, probably hydrolysing it first and then splitting the products into carbon dioxide and marsh gas.
We have thus an explanation of the occurrence of marsh gas and sulphuretted hydrogen in bogs, and it is highly probable that the existence of these gases in the intestines of herbivorous animals is due to similar putrefactive changes in the undigested cellulose remains.
In marshes, estuaries, sulphur springs, &c. When cellulose bacteria set free FIG.
The cell-wall of the higher plants, it gives usually no react i ons of cellulose, nor is chitin present as in the fungi, but it consists of a proteid substance and is apparently a modification of the general protoplasm.
The swollen cell-walls - in some cases consists mainly of cellulose, in others chiefly of a proteid substance; the matrix in some cases is horny and resistant, in others more like a thick solution of gum.
Both the oxide and hydroxide dissolve in ammonia to form a beautiful azure-blue solution (Schweizer's reagent), which dissolves cellulose, or perhaps, holds it in suspension as water does starch; accordingly, the solution rapidly perforates paper or calico.
GUNCOTTON, an explosive substance produced by the action of strong nitric acid on cellulose at the ordinary temperature; chemically it is a nitrate of cellulose, or a mixture of nitrates, according to some authorities.
It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.