Hygrophytes.Plants which are sub-evergreen or evergreen but it scierophyllous, and which live in moist soils; e.g., Lastraea lix-mas, Poa pratensis, Carex ovalis, Plantago lanceolala, and ihillaea Millefolium.
A local aggrettion of a species other than the dominant one in an associion brings about a plant society; for example, societies of Ericd etralix, of Scirpus caespitosus, of Molinia coerulea, of Carex irta, of Narthecium ossifra gum, and others may occur within i association of Calluna vulgaris.
Thus, associ- 1~e] ions of Agropyrum (Triticum) junceum, of Carex arenaria, of ~ ~nmophila (Psamma) arenaria, and of other plants occur on sa rid dunes: the associations are related by the general identity ph the habitat conditions, namely, the physiological dryness f d the loose soil; but they are separated by differences in f~1
Equisetum palustre, Phragmites communis, Glyceria aquatica, Carex riparia, Iris Pseudacorus, Rumex ilydrolapathum, Oenanthe fistulosa, Bidens spp.
Marsh plants: Alopecurus geniculatus, Carex dis~icha, Juncus spp., Caitha palustris, Nasturtium palustre.
In England, the following species are confined or almost confined to calcareous soils: A splenium Ruta-muraria, Melica nutans, Carex digitata, Aceras anthropophora, Ophrys ap~ifera, Thalictrum minus, Helianthemum Chamaecislus, Viola hirta, Linum perenne, Geranium lucidum, Hippocrepis comosa, Potentiila verna, Viburnum Lantana, Galium asperum (= G.
The following plants, in England, are calcifuge: Lastraea Oreopteris, Holcus niollis, Carex ech-inala, Spergula arvensis, Polygala serpyllacea, Cytisu~
On the whole, it consists of local species of some widely distributed northern genera, such as Carex, Poa, Ranunculus, &c., with alpine types of strictly south temperate genera, characteristic of the separate localities.
- Carex riparia, the largest British sedge, from 3 to 5 ft.
I, Male flower of Carex; 2, female flower of Carex; 3, seed of Carex, cut lengthwise.
In the alpine tracts of the north the narrowness of the valleys and the steep stony slopes strewn with debris, on which only lichens and mosses are able to grow, make every plot of green grass (even if it be only of Carex) valuable.
These are: Festuca pulchella, Carex microstyla, Salix caesia, Rumex nivalis, Alsine aretioides, Aquilegia alpina, Thlaspi rotundifolium, Saxifraga Seguieri, S.
In the more damp and marshy places the bottom is covered with marsh trefoil, carex, smooth equisetum, and rush.
Carex arenaria, the sea-bent, grows on sand-dunes and helps to bind the sand FIG.