In the region of the neck lateral strands pass through the transverse canal of the cervical vertebrae; but from the thoracic region onwards, where the cardiac branch to the heart is given off, each strand is double and the basal ganglia are successively connected with the next by a branch which runs ventrally over the capitulum of the rib, and by another which passes directly through the foramen or space formed between capitulum and tuberculum.
Use hot bottles and stimulants, especially trying to counteract the cardiac depression by atropine, caffeine, strophanthin, &c.
It used to be stated that these drugs are marked cardiac depressants; and the heart being invariably implicated in rheumatic fever, it is supposed that these drugs must be given with great caution.
It has now been established that, provided the kidneys be healthy, natural salicylic acid, sodium salicylate prepared from the natural acid, and salicin, are not cardiac depressants.
In twenty-four hours, without any toxic symptoms. The artificial acid and its salt contain ortho-, paraand meta-cresotic acids, which are cardiac depressants.
The drug is not a true specific, as quinine is for malaria, since it rarely, if ever, prevents the cardiac damage usually done by rheumatic fever; but it entirely removes the agonizing pain, shortly after its administration, and, an hour or two later, brings down the temperature to normal.
Whilst absolutely contra-indicated in all cases of valvular disease, it is of value in cases of cardiac hypertrophy with over-action.
When the growth is at the cardiac end of the stomach, blocking the gullet and causing slow starvation, the abdomen may advisedly be opened, and, the stomach having been fixed to the surface-wound, a permanent opening may be arranged for the introduction of an adequate amount of food.
Ten to twenty minims of ether, subcutaneously injected, constitute perhaps the most rapid and powerful cardiac stimulant known, and are often employed for this purpose in cases of syncope under anaesthesia.
The pathology of intra-cardiac and vascular murmurs has also been inquired into experimentally, the general impression being that these abnormal sounds result, in most cases at least, from the production of a sonorous liquid vein.
In the dropsy of cardiac disease, owing to the deficient oxidation from stagnation of blood, metabolic products must accumulate in the tissues; also lymph return must be impeded by the increased pressure in the veins and so dropsy results (Wells).
Nitroglycerin is valuable as a preventive in cases of cardiac pain, such as angina pectoris, and it is also used in other conditions where it is desirable to reduce the arterial tension.
All potassium salts if taken in large doses are cardiac depressants, they also depress the nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord.
The beaver, glandular masses are attached to and open into the cardiac or pyloric pouches.
Avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.
The cardiac portion of the complex stomach has a horny layer, and there is a caecum.
Later in its action, the drug depresses the intra-cardiac motor ganglia, causing prolongation of diastole and finally arrest of the heart in dilatation.
Not only is the respiratory centre stimulated but the cardiac centre is acted upon both directly by the drug and indirectly for a time by the enormous rise in blood pressure due to the contraction of the arterioles all over the body.
Of the hydrochloride may stimulate the cardiac action.
Digitalis contains four important glucosides, of which three are cardiac stimulants.
Digitonin, on the other hand, is a cardiac depressant, and has been found to be identical with saponin, the chief constituent of senega root.
This is due to a very definite influence upon the different portions of the cardiac cycle.
The systole is not altered in length, but the diastole is very much prolonged, and since this is the period not only of cardiac rest but also of cardiac "feeding" - the coronary vessels being compressed and occluded during systole - the result is greatly to benefit the nutrition of the cardiac muscle.
Added to the greater force of cardiac contraction is a permanent tonic contraction of the organ, so that its internal capacity is reduced.
The bearing of this fact on cases of cardiac dilatation is evident.
The cardiac contractions become irregular, the ventricle assumes curious shapes - "hour-glass," &c. - becomes very pale and bloodless, and finally the heart stops in a state of spasm, which shortly afterwards becomes rigor-mortis.
Clinically it is to be observed that the drug is cumulative, being very slowly excreted, and that after it has been taken for some time the pulse may become irregular, the blood-pressure low, and the cardiac pulsations rapid and feeble.
The initial action of digitalis is a stimulation of the cardiac terminals of the vagus nerves, so that the heart's action is slowed.
Thereafter follows the most important effect of the drug, which is a direct stimulation of the cardiac muscle.
This can be proved to occur in a heart so embryonic that no nerves can be recognized in it, and in portions of cardiac muscle that contain neither nervecells nor nerve-fibres.
A certain consequence of its use is to cause or increase cardiac hypertrophy - a condition which has its own dangers and ultimately disastrous consequences, and must never be provoked beyond the positive needs of the case.
This formula includes the vast majority of cardiac cases.
The respiratory centre is similarly stimulated, so that atropine must be regarded as a temporary but efficient respiratory and cardiac stimulant.
The uses of atropine in cardiac affections are still obscure and dubious.
It can only be laid down that the drug is a valuable though temporary stimulant in emergencies, and that its use as a plaster or internally often relieves cardiac pain.
Recollection of the extraordinary complexity of the problems which are involved in the whole question of pain of cardiac origin will emphasize the extreme vagueness of the above assertion.
The essential point here to be added is that death takes place from combined cardiac and respiratory failure.
Thiourea and many of its unsymmetrical derivatives have marked physiological action; thiourea causes a slowing of the pulse and respiration, cardiac failure, and death in convulsions; phenyl-, ethyland acetyl-thiourea are actively toxic. The most important derivative pharmacologically is allyl-thiourea, also known as thiosinamine or rhodallin, NH2 CS NH CH2 CH:CH2.
Beri-beri is a dietetic deficiency disease which manifests itself by cardiac weakness with shortness of breath, swelling of the legs and peripheral neuritis with numbness of the limbs and weakness.
Alcohol and cardiac stimulants may be required to prevent heart failure.
The medieval Jews also held that there is a cardiac demon in wine which takes possession of drunken men; and the Mahommedan prohibition of wine-drinking is based on a similar superstition.
As it does not depress the heart when used in medicinal doses, it may be given to patients suffering from cardiac disease.
The circulation in the brain may be lessened by warmth to the feet, cold to the head, warm food in the stomach, warm poultices or compresses to the abdomen, antipyretics, which reduce the temperature and consequently slow the beats of the heart in fever, and cardiac or vascular tonics, which slow the heart and tend to restore tone to the blood-vessels, so that the circulation in the brain may be more efficiently regulated.
When this continues for a length of time it tends by itself to cause deterioration of the blood-vessels and leads to death either by cerebral apoplexy or by cardiac failure.
Rest in bed should be insisted upon for a longer time than appears actually required, because acute rheumatism tends to bring on cardiac changes, and is more likely to do this when the heart is excited than when the patient is kept at rest.
Exercises, passive and active, are also used in diseases of the joints, as well as massage and baths, but exercises and training are even more important in cases of cardiac disease.
It is a powerful cardiac depressant, diminishing both the force and frequency of the heart's beat.
Summed up, its action is that of an irritant, and a cardiac and nervous depressant.
In most Decapods the " stomach " or dilated portion of the fore-gut is divided into two chambers, a large anterior " cardiac " and a smaller posterior " pyloric."
There may be bleeding from the nose, cutaneous congestion, deafness, blindness, coma or delirium, and even death from cardiac failure.