The steps which lead from the appearance of formaldehyde to that of the first well-defined carbohydrate are again matters of speculation.
Brown and Morris in 1892 advanced strong reasons for thinking that cane-sugar, Ci2H22O11, is the first carbohydrate synthesized, and that the hexoses found in the plant result from the decomposition of this.
Starch, indeed, wherever it appears in the plant seems to be a reserve store of carbohydrate material, deposited where it is found for longer or shorter periods till it is needed for consumption.
This energy is obtained especially by the chioroplastids, and part of it is at once devoted to the construction of carbohydrate material, being thus turned from the kinetic to the potential condition.
Carbon from the atmosphere, and produce, besides nitrogenous food materials, a very large amount of the carbohydrate sugar, as respiratory and fat-forming food for the live stock of the farm.
The nitrogen-bacteria that concern us here are of two main categories: (I) those that assimilate elementary nitrogen from its solution in sea-water, building it up into combination with carbohydrate as proteid; and (2) those that break down nitrate into nitrite, nitrite into ammonia and ammonia into elementary nitrogen.
" Glyco-proteids " differ from nucleo-proteids in containing a carbohydrate radical, which is liberated only by boiling with mineral acids or alkalies.
The " phospho-glyco-proteids " resemble the mucins and mucoids in containing a carbohydrate residue, but differ in containing phosphorus.
It is an albumin, and not a carbohydrate as was formerly held; and gives most of the colour reactions of albumins.
YXiKis, sweet), a carbohydrate of the formula C 6 H 12 0 6; it may be regarded as the aldehyde of sorbite.
For a time after entry they multiply, obtaining the nitrogen necessary for their nutrition and growth from the free nitrogen of the air, the carbohydrate required being supplied by the pea or clover plant in whose tissues they make a home.
The most obvious distinction is that the animal cell-wall is either absent or composed of a nitrogenous material, whereas the plant cell-wall is composed of a carbohydrate material - cellulose.
The food is alike in both cases; it consists of water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrates and proteins.
The animal cell can absorb its carbohydrate and proteid food only in the form of carbohydrate and proteid; it is dependent, in fact, on the pre-existence of these organic substances, themselves the products of living matter, and in this respect the animal is essentially a parasite on existing animal and plant life.
The water taken up by the root from the soil contains nitrogenous and mineral salts which combine with the first product of photo-synthesis - a carbohydrate - to form more complicated nitrogen-containing food substances of a proteid nature; these are then distributed by other elements of the vascular bundles (the phloem) through the leaf to the stem and so throughout the plant to wherever growth or development is going on.
The colourless granules of Florideae, which are supposed to constitute the carbohydrate reserve material, have been called floridean-starch.
If then we prepare densely inseminated plates of these two bacteria in gelatine food-medium to which starch is added as the only carbohydrate, the bacteria grow but do not phosphoresce.