I don't need the calories anyway.
Before technology and prosperity, virtually everyone spent long hard days scraping together enough calories for themselves and their family to survive.
158.6 calories; this means that the replacement of a hydrogen atom by a methyl group is attended by a constant increase in the heat of combustion.
By one count, rice is the principle source of calories for about half the planet.
Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
In the first case the thermal effect of 58.58 calories actually observed must be increased by 2d to allow for the heat absorbed in splitting off two gramme-atoms of carbon; in the second case the thermal effect of 96.96 must be increased by d as above.
Theabsolute heat of combustion of a carbon atom is therefore 135.34 calories, and this is independent of the form of the carbon burned.
The thermal effect of the aldehyde group has the average value 64.88 calories, i.e.
The thermal effects of the halogens are: chlorine =15.13 calories, bromine = 7.68; iodine = - 4.25 calories.
Thomsen deduced that a single bond between a carbon and a nitrogen gramme-atom corresponds to a thermal effect of 2.77 calories, a double bond to 5.44, and a treble bond to 8.31.
When one gramme of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 1670 thermal units or calories are evolved.
The quantity of heat evolved, according to Julius Thomsen, is 34,116 calories for each gram of hydrogen burned.
We thus see that radium is continually losing matter and energy as electricity; it is also losing energy as heat, for, as was observed by Curie and Laborde, the temperature of a radium salt is always a degree or two above that of the atmosphere, and they estimated that a gramme of pure radium would emit about 100 gramme-calories per hour.
The heat-flow through the central column amounted to about 7.5 calories in 54 seconds, and was measured by continuing the tube through the iron plate into the bulb of a Bunsen ice calorimeter, and observing with a chronometer to a fifth of a second the time taken by the mercury to contract through a given number of divisions.
0906 c.c., and was taken as being equivalent to 79 calories (I calorie =15.59 mgrm.
The following are some of the values deduced by well-known experimentalists for the latent heat of fusion: - Regnault, 79.06 to 79.24 calories, corrected by Person to 79.43; Person, 79.99 calories; Hess, 80.34 calories; Bunsen, 80.025 calories.
The application of the method appears to be practically limited to the measurements of specific heat between the atmospheric temperature and loo° C. The results depend on the value assumed for the latent heat of steam, which Joly takes as 536.7 calories, following Regnault.
Each experiment lasted about forty minutes, and the rise of temperature produced was nearly 3° C. The calorimeter contained about 5 kilogrammes of water, so that the rate of heat-supply was about 6 calories per second.
Lever At 300 Revolutions Per Minute, The Rate Of Generation Of Heat Was About 12 Kilo Calories Per Second.
The Result Calculated On These Assumptions Is Given In The Last Column In Joules, And Also In Calories Of 20° C. The Heatloss In This Example Is Large, Nearly 4.5% Of The Total Supply, Owing To The Small Flow And The Large Rise Of Temperature, But This Correction Was Greatly Reduced In Subsequent Observations On The Specific Heat Of Water By The Same Method.
For A Diatomic Gas, The Molecular Heat Would Be Nearly Five Calories, Or The Atomic Heat Of A Gas In The Diatomic State Would Be 2.5.
The Atomic Heat Of A Metal In The Solid State Is In Most Cases Larger Than Six Calories At Ordinary Temperatures.
(8) where is the molecular weight of the vapour, and R the gasconstant which is nearly 2 calories per degree for a gramme-molecule of gas.
37, p. 504, 1889) to give values of the total heat to to 6 calories too large between o° and 40° C. At low pressures and temperatures it is probable that saturated steam behaves very nearly as an ideal gas, and that the variation of the total heat is closely represented by Rankine's equation with the ideal value of S.
11030 calories per degree for ideal steam.
So =0.478 calories per degree at zero pressure, L=540 2 calories at loo° C. (JolyCallendar), n= 3'33, cioo = 26.30 c.c., b=t c.c., h=o 9970t+wL (v -w).
Its specific gravity is 3.18828 (r), latent heat of fusion 16.185 calories, latent heat of vaporization 45.6 calories, specific heat 0.1071.
Centimetre, exposed perpendicularly to the sun's rays, would receive sufficient energy per minute to raise 2.54 grams of water I ° C. Langley's general determination of the constant was greater than this-3 o to 3.5 calories; more recently C. G.
The latter has an average calorific power of 1732 calories per cubic metre, or 161 B.T.U.
Thisas, which is made for 10 or I I minutes, contains from 23 to 32% carbon monoxide, 7 to I 5% carbon dioxide, 2 to 3% hydrogen, a little methane, 64 to 66% nitrogen, and has a heating value of 950 calories per cub.
The water-gas itself is made for 7 minutes, and has an average composition of 3.3% carbon dioxide, 44% carbon monoxide, o 4% methane, 48.6% hydrogen, 3.7% nitrogen, and a heating value of 2970 calories per cub.
Ioo parts coke (of 7000 calories) furnish 4 2% of their heat value as water-gas and 42% as Siemens gas.
The coefficients, P and P', are called coefficients of the Peltier effect, and may be stated in calories or joules per ampere-second.
Like the Peltier coefficient, it may be measured in joules or calories per ampere-second per degree, or more conveniently and simply in microvolts per degree.
If you are a farmer and work alone, you can only plant as much land as you can personally plow. You can do just a couple of thousand calories of work a day, consuming only the energy produced by the food you ate.
These foodstuffs alone contain sixty thousand calories, or two thousand calories a day for a month, for a total of $30.
Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of formation of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 67.94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide at constant volume.
The average value for the carboxyl group is 119.75 calories, i.e.
Its latent heat of fusion is 11 7 calories, and its latent heat of vaporization is 23.95 calories (P. A.
P. 75, 1880) Repeated The Experiment, Employing The Same Method, But Using A Larger Calorimeter (About 8400 Grammes) And A Petroleum Motor, So As To Obtain A Greater Rate Of Heating (About 84 Calories Per Second), And To Reduce The Importance Of The Uncertain Correction For External Loss Of Heat.