As a rule terrestrial spiders guard the cocoon in the permanent burrow, as in the trap-door spiders, or in the silken retreat which acts as a temporary nursery, as in the Salticidae.
Most earthworms live in the soil, which they devour as they burrow through it.
Other caterpillars, "budworms" (Heliothis, spp.), attack the buds or burrow into the seed-pods.
If an aperture for ingress and egress, for purposes of feeding, were left in the wall of such a chamber, there would arise in a rudimentary form what is known as the tubular nest or web; and the next important step was possibly the adoption of such a nest as a permanent abode for the spider., Some spiders, like the Drassidae and Salticidae, have not advanced beyond this stage in architectural industry; but next to the cocoon this simple tubular retreat - whether spun in a crevice or burrow or simply attached to the lower side of a stone - is the most constant feature to be observed in the spinning habits of spiders.
Old Johnson, in his "Wonder-Working Providence," speaking of the first settlers of this town, with whom he was contemporary, tells us that "they burrow themselves in the earth for their first shelter under some hillside, and, casting the soil aloft upon timber, they make a smoky fire against the earth, at the highest side."
These tail-shielded snakes, of which about 40 species are known, are viviparous and burrow in the ground, preferring damp mountainforests.
Some are perforating algae and burrow into the substance of molluscan shells, in company with certain Green and Blue-green Algae.
During the daytime the hillock at the entrance to the burrow is frequently occupied by one or more members of the family, which at the approach of strangers sit up on their hind-legs in order to get a better view.
My instinct tells me that my head is an organ for burrowing, as some creatures use their snout and fore paws, and with it I would mine and burrow my way through these hills.
In the trap-door species of Lycosidae, like, for instance, Lycosa opifex of the Russian steppes, the hinge is weak and the lid of the burrow is kept normally shut by being very much thicker and heavier at its free margin opposite the hinge so that it readily falls by its own weight.
All the skinks seem to be viviparous, and they prefer dry, sandy ground, in which they burrow and move quickly about in search of their animal food.
Others cause much damage in forests, by boring under the bark and through the wood of trees, whilst some even burrow in the tissue of the leaves.
It lives on dry, welldrained ground, and digs a deep burrow lined with silk to prevent the infall of loose particles of soil.
Yet it may be thought that the usual instinct of the " diggingwasps " to capture and store up food in an underground burrow for the benefit of offspring which they will never see is even more surprising.
On retiring for the winter the hamster closes the various entrances to its burrow, and becomes torpid during the coldest period.
Many - like the common "solitary" bees Halictus and Andrena - burrow in the ground; the holes of species of Andrena are commonly seen in springtime opening on sandy banks, grassy lawns or gravel paths.
The lid is sometimes thin and wafer-like as in the burrow of the species of Nemesia, sometimes thick and cord-like as in that of the species of Cteniza or Pachylomerus.
Its upper side is always covered by the spider with pieces of the vegetation growing hard by, so that, when the door is closed, the position of the burrow is completely concealed.
If an attempt be made by any enemy to lift the lid, the spider seizes its inner side with his fangs and striking his claws into the walls of the burrow offers the greatest possible resistance to the efforts of the intruder.
The fifth pair of prosomatic appendages is used by these scorpions when burrowing, to kick back the sand as the burrow is excavated by the great chelae.
Some species, however, are alleged to be carnivorous, and a North American form of the genus Hydropsyche is said to spin around the mouth of its burrow a silken net for the capture of small animal organisms living in the water.
If its mouth be taken as between St Bee's Head on the English and Burrow Head on the Scottish coast, its length is 50 m.
Fabre states that the lastnamed insect uses a stone for the temporary closing of her burrow, and the Peckhams have seen a female Ammophila take a stone between her mandibles and use it as a hammer for pounding down the earth over her finished nest.
The female, instead of provisioning her burrow with a supply of food that will suffice the larva for its whole life, brings fresh flies with which she regularly feeds her young.
They are very prolific, the female producing several litters in the year, each consisting of over a dozen blind young; and these, when not more than three weeks old, are turned out of the parental burrow to form underground homes for themselves.
The burrow of the young hamster is only about a foot in depth, while that of the adult descends 4 or 5 ft.
Here in the spring the half-dozen or more coyote pups are brought forth; and it is said that at this season the old ones systematically drive any large game they may be chasing as near to their burrow, where the young coyotes are waiting to be fed, as possible before killing it, in order to save the labour of dragging it any great distance.
The genus is common to the northern half of both hemispheres, and its members burrow and hibernate.
It is nowhere abundant, but is found over the northern parts of Europe and Asia, and is a quiet, inoffensive animal, nocturnal and solitary in its habits, sleeping by day in its burrow, and issuing forth at night to feed on roots, beech-mast, fruits, the eggs of birds, small quadrupeds, frogs and insects.
In 1805 he married Harriet Burrow, whose mother, a widow, kept an establishment for lunatics in Hoxton.
2, a), while in many beetles that burrow into the earth or climb about on trees the fore-legs are broadened and strengthened for digging, or lengthened and modified for clinging to branches.
Upon hatching, the young, which differ from the adult in possessing long antennae and a pair of powerful fossorial anterior legs, fall to the ground, burrow below the surface, and spend a prolonged subterranean larval existence feeding upon the roots of vegetation.
Thus there were coarbs of Columba at Iona, Kells, Derry, burrow and other places.
This second hole is opened the next year, and used as the ordinary entrance, so that the number of closed up holes round a burrow gives an indication of the length of time that it has been occupied.
In the winter it covers the orifice of this burrow with a layer of silk, and lies dormant underground until the return of spring.
Others have the power of producing sounds, one use to which they put this faculty being apparently to signal from their burrow in the sand that they are "not at home" to an inopportune visitor.
The developing eggs are not carried about by the mother, but deposited in her subaqueous burrow, "where they are aerated by the currents of water produced by the abdominal feet of the parent."
They burrow in the sands of every shore; they throng the weeds between tide-marks; they ascend all streams; they are found in deep wells, in caverns, in lakes; in Arctic waters they swarm in numbers beyond computation; they find lodgings on crabs, on turtles, on weed-grown buoys; they descend into depths of the ocean down to hundreds or thousands of fathoms; they are found in mountain streams as far above sea-level as some of their congeners live below it.
Other allied African genera are Steatomys and Lophuromys, which include several species of small mouse-like rodents, with the habits of dormice generally, though some burrow in cornfields.
A very few have the power of swimming by opening and shutting the valves of the shell (Pecten, Lima); most can crawl slowly or burrow rapidly; others are, when adult, permanently fixed to stones or rocks either by the shell or the byssus.
I [I] ) so as to issue from the shell, and by its action the Anodonta can slowly crawl or burrow in soft mud or sand.
Bacteria of various kinds which alight upon their surfaces begin to fructify in abundance, but are rapidly destroyed as they burrow deeply.