- Diagram of sympodial budding, biserial type, shown in five stages (1-5).
- Diagram of sympodial budding, system, from which simple unbranched Plumularia-type.
And yet, according to Katie, she ran a budding goat dairy on a run-down farm in Northwest Arkansas.
- Diagram of sympodial 18) there is formed a main stem budding, uniserial type, shown on tithe i ma in t emeafh r m s polyp in four stages (1-4).
The pinnules never branch again, since in the uniserial mode of budding a polyp never forms a second polyp-bud.
The laws of branch formed by similar budding from 1; budding in hydroids a 2 -d 2 from 2, and so forth.
Such are the " guard-polyps " (machopolyps) of Plumularidae, which are often regarded as individuals of the nature of dactylozoids, but from a study of the mode of budding in this hydroid family Driesch concluded that the guard-polyps were not true polyp-individuals, although each is enclosed in a small protecting cup of the perisarc, known as a nematophore.
The direct method of medusa-budding only differs from the polyp-bud by its greater complexity of parts and organs.
The typical genus is the well-known hydroid Podocoryne, budding the medusa known as Dysmorphosa; Thamnostylus, Cytaeis, &c., are other medusae with unknown hydroids.
Everything was budding and blossoming.
- Diagrams of the monopodial method of budding, shown in five stages (1-5).
In this way we may distinguish, first, vegetative reproduction, the result of discontinuous growth of the tissues and cell-layers of the body as a whole, leading to (I) fission, (2) autotomy, or (3) vegetative budding; secondly, germinal reproduction, the result of the reproductive activity of the archaeocytes or germinal tissue.
If the germ-cells are undifferentiated, the offspring may arise from many cells or from a single cell; the first type is (4) germinal budding, the second is (5) sporogony.
- All known hydropolyps possess the power of reproduction by budding, and the buds produced may become either polyps or medusae.
On the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.
Thus the typical hydroid colony starts from a " founder " polyp, which in the vast majority of cases is fixed, but which may be floating, as in Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c. The founder-polyp usually produces by budding polyp-individuals, and these in their turn produce other buds.
After a time the polyps, or certain of them, produce by budding medusa-individuals, which sooner or later develop sexual elements; in some cases, however, the founder_ polyp remains solitary, that is to say, does not produce polypbuds, but only medusa-buds, from the first (Corymorpha, fig.
Budding from the hydrocaulus may be combined with budding from the hydrorhiza, so that numer ous branching colonies arise from a common basal stolon.
- Colony of Bougainvillea distinct types of budding are fruticosa, natural size, attached to the found, which are best deunderside of a piece of floating timscribed in botanical terminober.
In the sympodial method of budding, on the other hand, the founder-polyp is of limited growth, and forms a bud from its side, which is also of limited growth, and forms a bud in its turn, and so on (figs.
In this method of budding F s there are two types.
The non-sexua 1 reproduction takes the form of fission, budding or sporogony, the details of which are described below.
(3) Vegetative budding is almost universal in the Hydromedusae.
By budding is understood the formation of a new individual from a fresh growth of undifferentiated material.
Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.
The direct type of budding is rare, but is seen in Cunina and Millepora.
The indirect mode of budding (figs.
- Diagrams of Medusa budding with the formation of an entocodon.
- Modifications of the method of becomes reduced budding shown in fig.
It is seen from the foregoing account of medusa - budding that the entocodon is a very important constituent of the bud, furnishing some of the most essential portions of the medusa; its cavity becomes the subumbral cavity, and its lining furnishes the ectodermal epithelium of the manubrium and of the sub-umbral cavity as far as the edge of the velum.
Hence the budding of medusae exemplifies very clearly a common phenomenon in development, a phylogenetic series of events completely dislocated in the ontogenetic time-sequence.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
- This method of budding is commonly described as budding from a single body-layer, instead of from both layers.
From these facts,, and from those of the sporogony, to be described below, we may regard budding to this type as taking place from the germinal epithelium rather than from ordinary ectoderm.
(a) The Polyp. - Budding from the ectoderm alone has been described by A.
The tissues of the bud become differentiated into ectoderm and endoderm, and the endoderm of the bud becomes secondarily continuous with that of the parent, but no part of the parental endoderm contributes to the building up of the daughter-polyp. Lang regarded this method of budding as universal in polyps, a notion disproved by O.
Seeliger  who went to the opposite extreme and regarded the type of budding described by Lang as non-existent.
However, both of the statements and figures of Lang and of the facts to be described presently for medusae (Margellium), it is at least theoretically possible that both germinal and vegetative budding may occur in polyps as well as in medusae.
The clearest instance of germinal budding is furnished by Margellium (Rathkea) octopunctatum, one of the Margelidae.
The budding of this medusa has been worked out in detail by Chun (Hydrozoa, ), to whom the reader must be referred for the interesting laws of budding regulating the sequence and order of formation of the buds.
Weismann.) I, Ideally primitive method of budding, in which the mouth is formed first (Ia), next the tentacles (Ib), and lastly the umbrella.
Especially noteworthy in the germinal budding of Margellium is the formation of the entocodon, as in the vegetative budding of the indirect type.