The Picts and Britons now recovered their independence; for Aldfrith, apparently an illegitimate son of Oswio, who succeeded, made no attempt to reconquer them.
Finally in 756, having now allied himself with Ongus king of the Picts, he successfully attacked Dumbarton (Alcluith), the chief town of the Britons of Strathclyde.
The Parthians had at the best been beaten, not subdued; the Britons threatened revolt; there were signs that various tribes beyond the Alps intended to break into Italy.
They have been called the Britons of the south, and their courage in defending their country and their intelligence amply justify the compliment.
636), he defeated the advancing Britons at Bampton in Oxfordshire in 614, and Cwichelm sought to arrest the growing power of the Northumbrian king Eadwine by procuring his assassination; the attempt, however, failed, and in 626 the West Saxons were defeated in battle and forced to own Eadwine's supremacy.
Wolf-hunting was a favourite pursuit of the ancient Britons as well as of the Anglo-Saxons.
Its capital was Dumbarton (fortress of the Britons), then known as Alclyde.
Of the origin of the kingdom of the North Britons we have no information, but there seems little reason to doubt that they were the dominant people in southern Scotland before the Roman invasion.
After the withdrawal of the Romans in the 5th century the northern Britons seem to have shown greater determination in maintaining their independence than any of the southern kingdoms and, according to Welsh tradition, Cunedda, the ancestor of the kings of Gwynedd, had himself come from the north.
It is probable that the Britons were allied with the Scots when Aidan, the king of the latter, invaded Northumbria in A.D.
In 642, however, we find the two Celtic peoples at war with one another, for in that year the Britons under their king Owen defeated and slew the Scottish king Domnall Breac. In the same year they came into conflict with the Northumbrian king Oswio.
In 649 there appears to have been a battle between the Britons and the Picts, but about this time the former must have become subject to the Northumbrian kingdom.
In 711 and again in 717 we hear of further wars between the Britons and the Scots of Dalriada, the former being defeated in both years.
In 756 the North Britons are said to have been forced into submission and from this time onwards we hear very little of their history, though occasional references to the deaths of their kings show that the kingdom still continued to exist.
At the end of the reign of Edward the Elder (925) the Britons of Strathclyde submitted to that king together with all the other princes of the north.
The fall of the kingdom was only temporary, for we hear of a defeat of the Scottish king Cuilean by the Britons in 97 1.
Although Dumfries was the site of a camp of the Selgovian Britons, nothing is known of its history until long after the withdrawal of the Romans.
The courage of the Romans, however, soon overcame such fears; the Britons were put to flight; and the groves of Mona, the scene of many a sacrifice and bloody rite, were cut down.
It is from an incidental remark of his own, namely, that the year of the siege of Mount Badon - one of the battles fought between the Saxons and the Britons - was also the year of his own nativity, that the date of his birth has been derived; the place, however, is not mentioned.
Among other matters reference is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of Tiberius; the persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigern (Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders.
Thus it is on his sole, though in this instance perhaps trustworthy, testimony that the famous letter rests, said to have been sent to Rome in 446 by the despairing Britons, commencing: - "To Agitius (Aetius), consul for the third time, the groans of the Britons."
York is known to have been occupied by the Britons, and was chosen by the Romans as their most important centre in north Britain and named Eboracum or Eburacur.
The southern Picts ultimately subdued the Britons, and the castle became their chief stronghold until they were overthrown in 617 (or 629) by the Saxons under Edwin, king of Northumbria, from whom the name of Edinburgh is derived.
One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.
If the Britons had not already made he bridge before the Romans arrived it must have been one of the first Roman works.
120), but Dr Guest was not prepared to allow that the Britons were able to construct a bridge over a tidal river such as the Thames, some 300 yds.
It needs some temerity to differ from so great an authority as Dr Guest, but it strikes one as surprising that, having accepted the fact of a bridge made by the Britons, he should deny that these Britons possessed a town or village in the place to which he supposes that Aulus Plautius retired.
If so, the word " pont " may have been borrowed by the Britons before the commencement of the Roman occupation.
449 or 450 the invaders settled in Britain, and in 457 Hengist and Aesc fought against the Britons at Crayford, driving them out of Kent.
In this, the earliest period of Saxon history recorded, there appears to be no relic of the Christianity of the Britons, which at one time was well in evidence.
There is no doubt, however, that the net result was the expulsion of the Britons from Kent.
He is first spoken of in Nennius's History of the Britons (9th century), and at greater length in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (12th century), at the end of which the French Breton cycle attained its fullest development in the poems of Chretien de Troyes and others.
There are various unsatisfactory accounts of the early history of Oswestry (Blaneminster, or Album Monasterium), as that it was called Trer Cadeirau by the Britons and Osweiling after Cunelda Wledig, prince of North Wales, had granted it to his -son Osweil.
For, in view of the facts above stated, it was of small significance that in Britain Christianity was driven back into the western portion of the island still held by the Britons, and that in the countries of the Rhine and!Danube a few bishoprics disappeared.
About 115 or r20 the northern Britons rose in revolt and destroyed the Ninth Legion, posted at York, which would bear the brunt of any northern trouble.
The coherent civilization of the Romans was accepted by the Britons, as it was by the Gauls, with something like enthusiasm.
Romanized Britons must now have begun to be numerous.
It would seem as if the Romano-Britons were speedily driven from the east of the island.
According to Gildas it was for protection against these incursions that the Britons decided to call in the Saxons.
Their allies soon obtained a decisive victory; but subsequently they turned their arms against the Britons themselves, alleging that they had not received sufficient payment for their services.
Eventually, however, they overcame the Britons through treachery, by inducing the king to allow them to send for large bodies of their own countrymen.
Bede declares that Oswald ruled over "all the peoples and provinces of Britain, which includes four languages, those of the Britons, Picts, Scots and Angles."
The Britons and Irish, whose remoteness made them free from restriction, developed still more decided individuality.
We may note with interest that the three great iron producers so closely related by blood-Great Britain, the United States and Germany and Luxemburg-made in 1907 81% of the world's pig iron and 83% of its steel; and that the four great processes by which nearly all steel and wrought iron are made-the puddling, crucible and both the acid and basic varieties of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, as well as the steam-hammer and grooved rolls for rolling iron and steel-were invented by Britons, though in the case of the openhearth process Great Britain must share with France the credit of the invention.
It appears in several variant forms (brytenwalda, bretenanwealda, &c.), and means most probably "lord of the Britons" or "lord of Britain"; for although the derivation of the word is uncertain, its earlier syllable seems to be cognate with the words Briton and Britannia.
Another theory is that Bretwalda refers to a war-leadership, or imperium, over the English south of the Humber, and has nothing to do with Britons or Britannia.
Cynric defeated the Britons at Salisbury in 552 and again in conjunction with his son Ceawlin at Beranburh, probably Barbury Hill, in 55 6.
2.) In accordance with tradition this has been thought to mark the burial-place of Catigern, who was slain here in a battle between the Britons and Saxons in A.D.
Among the Persians, again, and more remarkably among the ancient Britons, there was a class of chariot having the wheels mounted with sharp, sickle-shaped blades, which cut to pieces whatever came in their way.
According to Strabo (p. 200) the Britons also bred dogs well adapted for hunting purposes.
Saffron Walden (Waledana) was almost certainly fortified by the Britons, and probably by some earlier race.
VORTIGERN (GUORTHIGIRNUS, WYRTGEORN), king of the Britons at the time of the arrival of the Saxons under Hengest and Horsa.
Later we find the Britons at war with the new-comers, now established in Kent, and four battles are fought, in the last of which, according to the Historia Brittonum, the king's son Vortemir, their leading opponent, is slain.
Welsh, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Britons, is the domestic tongue of the majority of the inhabitants of the Principality.
593), king of the West Saxons, first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 556 as fighting with his father Cynric against the Britons at the battle of Beranbyrig or Barbury Hill.
Uriconium, a town near the Wrekin, and Pengwyrn, the modern Shrewsbury, were destroyed; but soon Ceawlin was defeated by the Britons at Fethanleag or Faddiley, near Nantwich, and his progress was effectually checked.
The Alcluith ("hill of the Clyde")- of the Britons, and Dunbreatan ("fort of the Britons") of the Celts, it was the capital of the district of Strathclyde.
According to the Scalacronica of Sir Thomas Gray he drove the Angles and Britons over the Tweed, reduced the land as far as that river, and first called his kingdom Scotland.
When, in 1880, General Pitt-Rivers obtained possession of his great-uncle's estates-practically untouched by the excavator since they had been the battleground of the West Saxons, the Romans and the Britons-he devoted himself to exploring them.
The Britons burnt the Roman municipalities of Verulam and Colchester, the mart of London, and several military posts, massacred "over 70,000" Romans and Britons friendly to Rome, and almost annihilated the Ninth Legion marching from Lincoln to the rescue.
At last Paulinus, who seems to have rejoined his army, met the Britons in the field.
He succeeded in making the majority of the Britons, Picts and Scots tributary to him.