Was a "bourgeois king."
Weill, La France sous la monarchie de juillet (Paris, 1902); Emile Bourgeois, "The Orleans Monarchy," ch.
But the acceptance of a portfolio in a bourgeois ministry led to his exclusion from the Unified Socialist party (March 1906).
That in plain clothes, en bourgeois, as the French call it, is not so numerous, but fulfils a higher, or at least a more confidenti mission.
Difficulty; by his mother, Louise of Savoy, and his sister Marguerite; by all the rough young soldiery; by the nobles, tired of the bourgeois ways of Louis XI.
But, among these bourgeois Th those who were called Feuillants, from the name of pai~tles.
Soon, however, the credit of the estates having gone down, he withdrew to his diocese, but at the request of the bourgeois of Paris he speedily returned.
Bourgeois, Le Capitulaire de Kiersy-sur-Oise (Paris, 1885); V.
There are four main classes or crus (literally growths, but more correctly types or qualities), namely, the " grands crus classes " or " classed growths " and the bourgeois, artisan and peasant growths.
He had exchanged his moderate republicanism for radical views before he became war minister in the cabinet of Leon Bourgeois (1895-1896).
Determined the simultaneous fall of the bourgeois rgime and the establishment of the democracy in power.
By de Vaissiere (Paris, 1897-1899); Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, ed.
Personally Daunou was reserved and somewhat austere, preserving in his habits a strange mixture of bourgeois and monk.
LEON VICTOR BOURGEOIS AUGUSTE (1851-), French statesman, was born at Paris on the 21st of May 1851, and was educated for the law.
AILLY, PIERRE D' (1350-1420), French theologian, was born at Compiegne in 1350 of a bourgeois family, and studied in Paris at the celebrated college of Navarre.
The reports which he drew up upon educational questions drew attention to him, and on the 3rd of November 1895 he entered the Bourgeois cabinet as minister of public instruction, resigning with his colleagues on the 21st of April following.
In 1921 the total number of Socialists of every complexion in the House of Deputies was 141, as opposed to 137 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 199, Germans 72, Magyars 7).
In the Senate the Socialists numbered 68, as against 75 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 103, Germans 37, Magyars 3).
Leon Bourgeois as president of the committee appointed to deal with the FrancoGerman treaty, the necessity for the ratification of which he demonstrated.
Charles and Rene of Anjou retired from court, and the greater part of the members of the king's council were drawn from the bourgeois classes.
Bourgeois, R.A., in 181 I, with a separate endowment.
Dissensions among the citizens, or between the nobles and the bourgeois, frequently ended in the adoption of a podestat.
But, even when all conscious bias is eliminated, the unconscious bias remains, and Rankes history of the Reformation is essentially a middle-class, even bourgeois, presentment.
The new Assembly which had met on the 1st of October 179 had a majority favorable to the constitutional monarchy and to the bourgeois franchise.
ARISTIDE BRIAND (1862-), French statesman, was born at Nantes, of a bourgeois family.
The Bolsheviks, having killed a number of imprisoned " bourgeois," abandoned the city and the whole region after heavy losses.
Guesde, nevertheless, continued to oppose the opportunist policy of Jaures, whom he denounced for supporting one bourgeois party against another.
Bourgeois Neuchatel et la politique prussienne en Franche-Comte (Paris, 1877).
Palmerston, indeed, who did not believe that under the Bourgeois Monarchy France would translate her brave words into action, was in favour of settling the Turco-Egyptian question once for all by depriving Mehemet Ali of Egypt as well.
The whole feudal system crumbled before the revolutionary insistence of the peasants; for their masters, bourgeois or nobles, terrified by prolonged riots, capitulated and gradually had to consent to make the resolutions of the 4th of August a reality.
"Vous etes le bourgeois?" * the officer asked Gerasim.
In order to cover this recourse was had as usual, not to remedies, but to palliatives worse than the evil: heavy usurious loans, debasement of the coinage, creation of stocks that were perpetually being converted, and ridiculous charges which the bourgeois, sickened with officialdom, would endure no longer.
Was preserved, and the suffrage was almost universal, but in two kinds: for the third estate nearly all citizens over twenty-five years of age, paying a direct contribution, votedpeasants as well as bourgeois; the country clergy were included among the ecciesiastics; the smaller nobility among the nobles; and finally, Protestants were electors and eligible.
Their chief was not so much Robespierre, president of the parliamentary and bourgeois club of the Jacobins (q.v.), which had acquired by means of its two thousand affiliated branches great power in the provinces, as the advocate Danton, president of the popular and Parisian club of the Cordeliers.
The bureaucracy became a refuge for the nobles, and above all for the bourgeois, whose fixed incomes were lowered by the influx of precious metals from the New World, while the wages of artisans rose.
The French entered the city in spite of the fierce resistance of the lazzaroni, who were devoted to the king, and with the aid of the nobles and bourgeois established the Parthenopaean Republic (January 1799).
He held extreme Catholic views and wrote on the most risque subjects; he gave himself aristocratic airs and hinted at a mysterious past, though his parentage was entirely bourgeois and his youth very hum-drum and innocent.
By his firm maintenance of the corporation system, each industry remained in the hands of certain privileged bourgeois; in this way, too, improvement was greatly discouraged; while to the lower classes opportunities of advancement were closed.
This practice is almost without exception resorted to with what are known as the " classed growths " and the superior " bourgeois " wines, whilst in seasons in which the wines are of good quality it is continued down to the lower grades.
It was, however, soon clear that Palmerston's diagnosis of the temper of the French bourgeois was correct; the clamour for war subsided; on the 4th of December the address on the Egyptian Question proposed by the government was carried, and peace was assured.
If, as has been claimed, Louis owed to them any of his tendency to prefer the society of the poor, or rather of the bourgeois, to that of the nobility, their example was his best lesson in the craft of kingship. In June 1436, when scarcely thirteen, he was married to Margaret (c. 1425-1445), daughter of James I.
The upper bourgeois, the aristocracy of his "good cities," were his allies both against the nobles and against the artisan class, whenever they revolted, driven to desperation by the oppressive royal taxes which furnished the money for his wars or diplomacy.