In some instances these differences are so marked that they have led some botanists to regard as distinct species many forms usually esteemed by others as varieties only.
Mr Charles Green was commissioned to conduct the astronomical observations, and Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Solander were appointed botanists to the expedition.
The early histological researches of botanists led them to the recognition of the vegetable cell, and the leading writers in the middle of the ~9th century pointed out the probable identity of Von Mohls protopiarm with the sarcode of zoologists.
There is at present also a want of agreement among botanists as to the path which the water takes in the structural elements of the tree, two views being held.
Baeyers hypothesis was entertained by botanists partly because it explained the gaseous interchanges accompanying photosynthesis.
It has been suggested by several botanists, with considerable plausibility, that the ultra-violet or chemical rays can be absorbed and utilized by the protoplasm without the intervention of any pigment such as chlorophyll.
Such terms as hydrophytes, xerophytes, and halophytes had been used by plant geographers before Warmings time e.g., by Schouw;4 and the terms evidently supply a want felt by botanists as they have come into general use.
The Forest Region of the Russian botanists includes the greater part of the country, from the Arctic tundras to the steppes, and over this immense expanse it maintains a remarkable uniformity of character.
Of the two Italian botanists who in comparatively recent years have monographed the group, Parlatore (Le Specie dei cotoni, 1866) recognizes seven species, whilst Todaro (Relazione sulla culta dei cotoni, 18 7718 78) describes over fifty species: many of these, however, are of but little economic importance, and, in spite of the difficulties mentioned above, it i s possible for practical purposes to divide the commercially important plants into five species, placing these in two groups according to the character of the hairs borne on the seeds.
Between the years 1788 and 1850 numerous attempts were made by the East India Company to improve the cultivation and to increase the supply of cotton in India, and botanists and American planters were engaged for the purpose.
It is admitted, however, by all competent botanists that the almond is wild in the hotter and drier parts of the Mediterranean and Levantine regions.
That the domestic use, however, of the fragrant wood 660v (the Arbor vitae or Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, the source of the resin sandarach) was known in the Homeric age, is shown by the case of Calypso (Od.
The expedition, including naturalists, botanists, a mineralogist, taxidermists, a philologist, &c., was carried by the sloops-of-war "Vincennes" and "Peacock," the brig "Porpoise," the storeship "Relief" and two tenders.
A second group is that of the Pseudonarcissi, constituting the genus Ajax of some botanists, of which the daffodil, N.
The investigations of Japanese botanists are adding constantly to the above number, and it is not likely that finality will be reached for some time.
Some botanists have enumerated 80 species from Great Britain alone, while others count only 12 or i 5.
The work was continued after his death, by his son Alphonse de Candolle, with the aid of other eminent botanists, and embraces descriptions of the genera and species of the orders of Dicotyledonous plants.
Soon after the promulgation of Linnaeus's method of classification, the attention of botanists was directed to the study of Cryptogamic plants, and the valuable work of Johann Hedwig (1730-1799) on the reproductive organs of mosses made its appearance in 1782.
Botanists were for a long time content to know that the scattering of the pollen from the anther, and its application to the stigma, were necessary for the production of perfect seed, but the stages of the process of fertilization remained unexplored.
C. Treviranus, professor of botany in Bonn, roused the attention of botanists to the development of the embryo, but although he made valuable researches, he did not add much in the way of new information.
The subject of palaeontological botany has been advanced by the researches of both botanists and geologists.
Among the scientific celebrities were de Saussure, the most many-sided of all; de Candolle and Boissier, the botanists; Alphonse Favre and Necker, the geologists; Marignac, the chemist; Deluc, the physicist, and Plantamour, the astronomer.
The inference is almost irresistible that the law of gradual transformation through minute continuous change is by far the most universal; but many palaeontologists as well as zoologists and botanists hold a contrary opinion.
Explorations by botanists of the United States Department of Agriculture have been made in many localities, in Jalisco, Zacatecas, Michoacan and Tamaulipas, but many years must elapse before the whole ground can be covered.
This association with Protophyta accounts for their study by many distinguished botanists, such as W.
The type form is the Caucasian species roseum of botanists, hardy perennial, with finely cut leaves and large flower heads, having a ray of deep rosecoloured ligulate florets surrounding the yellow centre or disk.
Americana), of which there are several varieties, two so well marked that they are by some botanists considered specifically distinct.
Of country between Cherchen and Shushal, and brought back a valuable collection of plants, which, added to those collected by other travellers in this part of Tibet, enabled botanists considerably to extend their scanty knowledge of this region.
The place is a centre for artists, geologists and botanists, for the ascent of Snowdon, Moel Siabod, Glydyr Fawr, Glydyr Fach, Tryfan, &c., and for visiting Llyn Ogwen, Llyn Idwal, Twll du (Devil's Kitchen), Nant Ffrancon and the Penrhyn quarries.
Naturalists will of course prefer other limits according as they are geologists, botanists or zoologists.
We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences.
The occurrence of hybrids in nature explains the difficulty experienced by botanists in deciding on what is a species, and the widely different limitations of the term adopted by different observers in the case of willows, roses, brambles, &c. The artificial process is practically the same in hybridization as in cross-fertilization, but usually requires more care.
Papyrifera of many botanists), the discrepancies in geography, ethnology and zoology, which have been so troublesome in the past, will disappear; other features, usually considered obscure, will become luminous; and the older and less distorted sagas, at least in their main incidents, will become vivid records of actual geographic exploration."
Apart from this, botanists are generally agreed that the concrescence of parts of the flower-whorls - in the gynaeceum as the seed-covering, and in the corolla as the seat of attraction, more than in the androecium and the calyx - is an indication of advance, as is also the concrescence that gives the condition of epigyny.
Before leaving the Chlorophyceae, it should be mentioned that the genus Volvox has been included by some zoologists (Btitschli, for example) among Flagellata; on the other hand, certain green Flagellata, such as Euglena, are included by some botanists (for example, van Tieghem) among unicellular plants.
The flora of the Quito basin has been well studied by various European botanists, more especially by Dr William Jameson (1796-1873) of the university of Quito, who began the preparation of a synopsis of the Ecuadorean flora in 1864-1865 (Synopsis plantarum Quitensium, 2 vols., Quito, 1865).
The wood used in building is obtained from trees of the class known to botanists as exogens, or those trees which grow larger by the addition each year of a layer of new wood on their outer surface.
The Poinsettia pulcherrima of gardens (Euphorbia pulcherrima of botanists), a native of Mexico and Central America, with its brilliant scarlet bracts, stands unrivalled amongst decorative plants.
Zermatt was long known to botanists and geologists only, and has an interesting though very local history.
The botanist Clusius (Charles de l'Escluse or Lecluse, 1526-1609) first cultivated it at Vienna from a root received from Asia Minor in 1574, and distributed it to other botanists in central and western Europe, and it was probably introduced into England about 1596 by the herbalist Gerard.
The flora of Finland has been most minutely explored, especially in the south, and the Finnish botanists were enabled to divide the country into twenty-eight different provinces, giving the numbers of phanerogam species for each province.
Alphonse de Candolle (Geographic botanique, p. 798) informs us that several botanists of Paris, Geneva, and especially of Montpellier, have sown the seeds of many hundreds of species of exotic hardy plants, in what appeared to be the most favourable situations, but that in hardly a single case has any one of them become naturalized.
7rLru), a name given by the ancients to some of the resinous cone-bearing trees to which it is now applied, and, as limited by modern botanists, the designation of a large genus of true conifers, differing from the firs in their hard woody cone-scales being thickened at the apex, and in their slender needle - shaped leaves growing from a membranous sheath, either in pairs or from three to five together - each tuft representing an abortive branch, springing from the axil of a partially deciduous scale-leaf, the base of which remains closely adherent to the stem.
Botanists are agreed that the only species in general cultivation in Great Britain is the one which Bauhin, in his Phytopinax, p. 89 (1596), called Solanum tuberosum esculentum, a name adopted by Linnaeus (omitting the last epithet), and employed by all botanical writers.
These plants grow in swampy forests, and, being dioecious and varying much in the form of leaf in different individuals, are imperfectly known to botanists, only two species having been identified with certainty.
Bicheno, all botanists, J.
All these terms, including the usual one of bacteria, are unsatisfactory; for " bacterium," " bacillus " and " micrococcus " have narrow technical meanings, and the other terms are too vague to be scientific. The most satisfactory designation is that proposed by Nageli in 1857, namely " schizomycetes," and it is by this term that they are usually known among botanists; the less exact term, however, is also used and is retained in this article since the science is commonly known as " bacteriology."
It had been, however, an axiom with botanists that the green plants were unable to use the nitrogen of the air.
- This class-designation has been recently proposed to give emphasis to the isolated position of the genus Ginkgo (Salisburia) among the Gymnosperms. Ginkgo biloba, the maidenhair tree, has usually been placed by botanists in the Taxeae in the neighbourhood of the yew (Taxes), but the proposal by Eichler in 1852 to institute a special family, the Salisburieae, indicated a recognition of the existence of special characteristics which distinguish the genus from other members of the Coniferae.
The morphology of the female flowers has been variously interpreted by botanists; the peduncle bearing the ovules has been described as homologous with the petiole of a foliage-leaf and as a shoot-structure, the collar-like envelope at the base of the ovules being referred to as a second integument or arillus, or as the representative of a carpel.
It may be that the interpretation of the female cone of the Abietineae as an inflorescence, which finds favour with many botanists, cannot be applied to the cones of Agathis and Araucaria.
It is held by some botanists (Celakovsky) that the seminiferous scale of the Abietineae is homologous with the arillus or second integument of the Taxaceae, but this view is too strained to gain general acceptance.
The abundance of petrified coniferous wood in rocks of various ages has led many botanists to investigate the structure of modern genera with a view to determining how far anatomical characters may be used as evidence of generic distinctions.
The mature cone is fleshy, with the succulent scales fused together and forming the fruit-like structure known to the older botanists as the galbulus, or berry of the juniper.
As a whole the flora of Turkestan is identical with that of Central Asia, which was formerly continued by geo-botanists as far west as the steppes of Russia, but which must now be considered as a separate region subdivided into two - the Central Asian proper and that of the Gobi.
Cases in which the variation is most extreme some botanists would prefer to consider as forming distinct species; but others, as De Vilmorin, having regard to the general facts of the case and to the numerous intermediate gradations, look upon all the forms as derivatives from one.
The classification of the different varieties of cultivated wheat has occupied the attention of many botanists and agriculturists.
In Cycas the altered leaf, upon the margin of which the ovule is produced, and the peltate scales, from which they are pendulous in Zamia, are regarded by all botanists as carpellary leaves.
The greatest difference of opinion exists among botanists as to their number and the bounds to be assigned to each; and the cross-fertilization that takes place between the species intensifies the difficulty.