The area is second to that of Wandsworth among the metropolitan boroughs, but is not wholly built over.
Though a distinct borough it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with Gillingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a single town with a population which in 1901 exceeded 110,000.
In 1906 there were 1805 mandamenti and 8290 communes, and 4 boroughs in Sardinia not connected with communes.
Rhayader constituted one of the group of boroughs comprising the Radnor parliamentary district until the Redistribution Act of 1885.
THE BRONX, formerly a district comprising several towns in Westchester county, New York, U.S.A., now (since 1898) the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City (q.v.).
Again, however, the advantage was with the East, for the delegates were chosen by counties, two from each; but in the convention, which was in session at Raleigh from the 4th of June to the filth of July, the East made some concessions: such as the popular election of the governor (who had previously been elected by the two houses of the legislature), the disfranchisement of free negroes, and the abolition of representation from 6 boroughs, 4 of which were in the East.
The municipal boroughs are Chesterfield (pop. 27,185), Derby, a county borough and the county town (114,848), Glossop (21,526), Ilkeston (2 5,384).
The boroughs of Derby, Chesterfield and Glossop have separate commissions of the peace, and that of Derby has also a separate court of quarter sessions.
Nevertheless, of the death of a man, and of a maihem done in great ships, being and hovering in the main stream of great rivers, only beneath the [[[bridges]]] of the same rivers [nigh] to the sea, and in none other places of the same rivers, the admiral shall have cognizance, and also to arrest ships in the great flotes for the great voyages of the king and of the realm; saving always to the king all manner of forfeitures and profits thereof coming; and he shall have also jurisdiction upon the said flotes, during the said voyages only; saving always to the lords, cities, and boroughs, their liberties and franchises."
After the 1920 census was taken the township of Chartiers, with a pop. of 5,000, was annexed, petitions were filed for the annexation of the borough of Homestead with a pop. of 20,452, and a movement was on foot for the merger of the boroughs of Wilkensburg (24,403), Ingram (4,000), Grafton (5934) and others.
It was also one of the chief Danish boroughs, and Earl Siward is said to have died there in 1055.
No researches are permitted in boroughs and villages or in forests, pasturages, &c., if it be considered that they would interfere with public convenience.
In virtue of its being the shire-town, Cardiff acquired in 1535 the right to send one representative to parliament, which it did until 1832, from which date Cowbridge and Llantrisant have been joined with it as contributory boroughs returning one member.
The continual disputes between the two boroughs led to the passing of an act of union in 1571, the new borough being incorporated under the title of the "Mayor, Bailiffs and Burgesses" by James I.
Melcombe Regis first returned two members to parliament in 1307, and Weymouth in 1319, four members being returned by the united boroughs until 1832, when the representation was reduced to two and ceased in 1885.
The number and aggregate population of all towns and boroughs in Hungary proper having in 1890 more than 10,000 inhabitants was at the censuses of 1880, 1890 and 1900: Thus the relative increase of the population living in urban districts of more than io,000 inhabitants amounted in 1900 to nearly 4% of the total population.
Between Westminster, the City and Stepney, and the northern boroughs - St Marylebone (commonly Marylebone), Holborn, Finsbury, Shoreditch, Bethnal Green.
Ath ' K;idbrooke Hither Green: Wes i Bromley C Longitude West 0°4' of Greenwich Rai lways....-- underground Canals ' '; County Metropolitan Boroughs ...... :: ...
East of it there is an abrupt transition to the district commonly known as the " East End," as distinguished from the wealthy " West End," a district of mean streets, roughly coincident with the boroughs of Stepney and Poplar, Shoreditch and Bethnal Green, and primarily (though by no means exclusively) associated with the problems attaching to the life of the poor.
The surface tramway system of London cannot be complete, as, within an area roughly represented by the boroughs of Chelsea, Kensington and Fulham, the city of Westminster and a considerable district north thereof, and the city of London, the ' Charing Cross station was the scene of a remarkable catastrophe on the 5th of December 1905, when a large part of the roof collapsed, and the falling debris did very serious damage to the Avenue theatre, which stands close to the station at a lower level.
A comparison of the death-rate of London and those of other great towns in England and abroad is given here: - In 1905 the lowest death-rates among the metropolitan boroughs were returned by Hampstead (9.3), Lewisham (11.7), Wandsworth (12.6), Woolwich (12.8), Stoke Newington (12.9), and the highest by Shoreditch (19.7), Finsbury (19.0), Bermondsey (18.7), Bethnal Green (18.6) and Southwark (18.5).
The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.
(See also separate articles on boroughs.) Water Supply.-In the 12th century London was supplied with water from local streams and wells, of which Holy Well, Clerk's Well (Clerkenwell) and St Clement's Well, near St Clement's Inn, were examples.
Appointed by the London County Council 1 pp y y (4), the City of London and the City of Westminster (2 each), the other Metropolitan boroughs (1 each), the county councils of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent and Surrey (1 each), borough of West Ham (2), various groups of other boroughs and urban districts, and the Thames and the Lea Conservancies.
(See also separate articles on boroughs.) Bathing (at certain hours) and boating are permitted in the ornamental waters in several of the parks, music is provided and much attention is paid to the protection of waterfowl and other birds, while herds of deer are maintained in some places, and also botanical gardens.
Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.
The wealthier metropolitan parishes became discontented with the form of local government to which they remained subject, and in 1897 Kensington and Westminster petitioned to be created boroughs by the grant of charters under the Municipal Corporation Acts.
It brought into existence the twenty-eight Metropolitan boroughs enumerated at the outset of this article.
The parliamentary boroughs are thus in many cases named and bounded differently from the metropolitan boroughs.
In the following list the boroughs which extend outside the administrative county of London are noted.
That the bringing of special legislation to bear on special cases (as the petition of these two boroughs would have demanded) would be inexpedient as making against homogeneity.
The act of 1899 swept away all these distinctions, and constituted the new borough councils in every case the overseers for every parish within their respective boroughs, except that the town clerk of each borough performs the duties of overseers with respect to the registration of electors.'
This fund is raised by the rate of 6d.in the pound on the assessable value of the county of London, and redistributed among the boroughs in proportion to their population.
- Though we have not much information concerning the religious gilds in the 12th century, they doubtless flourished under the AngloNorman kings, and we know that they were numerous, especially in the boroughs, from the 13th century onward.
In fact it played a more conspicuous role in the small boroughs than in the large ones.
The old gild merchant remained longest intact and powerful in the smaller boroughs, in which, owing to the predominance of agriculture, few or no craft gilds were formed.
As a rule the craft gilds secured no dominant influence in the boroughs of England, but remained subordinate to the town government.
On the 18th of March 1867 the Tory Reform Bill, which ended in establishing Household Suffrage in the boroughs, was introduced, and was read a second time without a division.
He promulgated laws about the year 928, appointing a large number of " moneyers " or " mynteres," London being assigned eight, Canterbury seven, other important towns various numbers and all smaller boroughs one moneyer each.
The municipal boroughs are Bromley (pop. 27,354), Canterbury, a city and county borough (24,889), Chatham (37,057), Deal (10,581), Dover (4 1, 794), Faversham (11,290), Folkestone (30,650), Gillingham (42,530), Gravesend (27,196), Hythe (5557), Lydd (2675), Maidstone (33,516), Margate (23,118), New Romney (1328), Queenborough (1544), Ramsgate (2 7,733), Rochester, a city (30,590), Sandwich (3170), Tenterden (324.3), Tunbridge Wells (33,373) The urban districts are Ashford (12,808), Beckenham (26,331), Bexley (12,918), Broadstairs and St Peter's (6466), Cheriton (7091), Chislehurst (7429), Dartford (18,644), Erith (25,296), Foots Cray (5817), Herne Bay (6726), Milton (7086), Northfleet (12,906), Penge (22,465), Sandgate (2294), Sevenoaks (8106), Sheerness (18,179), Sittingbourne (8943), Southborough (6977), Tonbridge (12,736), Walmer (5614), Whitstable (7086), Wrotham (3571).
24 proximity to London, beyond those included among the boroughs and urban districts, there should be mentioned Orpington (4259).
In the first county council elections for Carnarvonshire he played a strenuous part on the Radical side, and was chosen an alderman; and in 1890, at a by-election for Carnarvon Boroughs, he was returned to parliament by a majority of 18 over a strong Conservative opponent.
The municipal and parliamentary boroughs of Lynn are co-extensive; the parliamentary borough returns one member.
The historical origin of American municipal government is to be found in certain boroughs which had been chartered in the colonial period, after the fashion of English boroughs.
C. Within each state powers of taxation, to a determinate or to an indeterminate extent, as the case may be, are by the constitution and laws of the state conferred, almost always for strictly defined purposes, (1) upon counties, (2) upon cities, boroughs and incorporate villages, and (3) in nearly all the states, though in widely varying degrees, upon the primary geographical divisions of counties, such as the town of New England and the township of the Middle and Western states.
Since 1832 it has belonged to the Swansea parliamentary district of boroughs, uniting with Kenfig, Loughor, Neath and Swansea to return one member; but in 1885 the older portion of Swansea was given a separate member.
Salford has been to a large extent overshadowed by Manchester, and the two boroughs, in spite of their separate government, are so closely connected as to be one great urban area.
The Danish settlements at the end of the 9th century and the defensive system initiated by King Alfred gave birth to a new series of fortified towns, from which the boroughs of the middle ages are mainly descended.
The silk and cement industries are confined largely to the eastern cities and boroughs; the coke, tin and terne-plate, and pickling industries to the western; and the construction and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, Chambersburg, Butler and Philadelphia.
Justices of the peace are elected in wards, districts, boroughs and townships.