About this time Hansen, who had long been engaged in researches on the biology of the fungi of fermentation, demonstrated that yeast free from bacteria could nevertheless occasion diseases in beer.
As we arrive at the r 9th century, though yet before the days of Darwin, biology is already beginning to affect the general aspect of thought.
It is remarkable that each of these writers seems to have been led, independently and contemporaneously, to invent the same name of " biology " for the science of the phenomena of life; and thus, following Buffon, to have recognized the essential unity of these phenomena, and their contradistinction from those of inanimate nature.
If Meckel's proposition is so far qualified, that the comparison of adult with embryonic forms is restricted within the limits of one type of organization; and if it is further recollected, that the resemblance between the permanent lower form and the embryonic stage of a higher form is not special but general, it is in entire accordance with modern embryology; although there is no branch of biology which has grown so largely, and improved its methods so much since Meckel's time, as this.
The evolutionary idea has revolutionized and unified geography as it did biology, breaking down the old hard-and-fast partitions between the various departments, and substituting the study of the nature and influence of actual terrestrial environments for the earlier motive, the discovery and exploration of new lands.
In biology conception is the coalescence of the male and female generative elements, producing pregnancy.
The work achieved by Russian savants, especially in biology, physiology and chemistry, and in the sciences descriptive of the vast territory of Russia, is well known to Europe.
Comte's series or hierarchy is arranged as follows: (i) Mathematics (that is, number, geometry, and mechanics), (2) Astronomy, (3) Physics, (4) Chemistry, (5) Biology, (6) Sociology.
His labours coincided in time with the great development of biology under the stimulus of the Darwinian theory, and the sympathizers with the new views, feeling the need of a comprehensive survey of the world as a whole, very widely accepted Spencer's philosophy at its own valuation, both in England and, still more, in America.
In the Principles of Biology the most notable points are the definition of life as the continuous adjustment of internal to external relations, and the consequent emphasis on the need of adapting the organism to its environment.
After completing his system (1896) Spencer continued to revise it, and brought out new editions of the Biology (1898-1899) and First Principles (1900).
Dims, house, and X6 yos, department of science), that part of the science of biology which treats of the adaptation of plants or animals to their environment (see PLANTS: Ecology).
In literature there may be, e.g., an adaptation of a novel for a drama, or in music an arrangement of a piece for two hands into one for four, &c. In biology, according to the doctrine of evolution, adaptation plays a prominent part as the process by which an organism or species of organisms becomes modified to suit the conditions of its life.
How far such adaptations are produced afresh in each generation, whether or no their effects are transmitted to descendants and so directly modify the stock, to what extent adaptations characteristic of a species or variety have come about by selection of individuals capable, in each generation, of responding favourably, or how far by the selection of individuals fortuitously suitable to the environment, or, how far, possibly by the inheritance of the responses to the environment, are problems of biology not yet definitely solved.
Here then we have the basis of a view in which there are not two media to be considered, but one medium, homogeneous in essence and differentiated as regards its parts only by the presence of nuclei of intrinsic strain or motion - in which the physical activities of matter are identified with those arising from the atmospheres of modified aether which thus belong to its atoms. As regards laws of general physical interactions, the atom is fully represented by the constitution of this atmosphere, and its nucleus may be left out of our discussions; but in the problems of biology great tracts of invariable correlations have to be dealt with, which seem hopelessly more complex than any known or humanly possible physical scheme.
Williams observes (Geological Biology, p. 268) that the evolution of those fundamental characters which mark differences between separate classes, orders, sub-orders, and even families of organisms, took place in relatively short periods of time.
Smith Woodward (" Relations of Palaeontology to Biology," Annals and Mag.
1894), and in Geological Biology, by H.
Not only has the number of known forms been greatly multiplied, but the study of the biology and life-history of the parasites has been attended in some cases with remarkable and unexpected results.
Nevertheless the resemblance between the biology of this organism in relation to syphilis (as regards mode of infection, habitat, &c.) and that of Trypanosoma equiperdum, the cause of dourine or " horse-syphilis," may not be without significance.
AMORPHISM (from a, privative, and pop0, form), a term used in chemistry and mineralogy to denote the absence of regular or crystalline structure in a body; the adjective "amorphous," formless or of irregular shape, being also used technically in biology, &c.
REPRODUCTION, in biology, the generation of new organisms from existing organisms more or less similar.
In technical biology each species is designated by two words, one for the genus, printed with an initial capital, and one for the particular species, printed without an initial capital in Zoology, whilst in Botany the habit once common to both subjects is retained, and the specific name if derived from a proper name is printed with a capital.
The natural history of Sokotra, unravelled by the study of its geology and biology, has been summarized by Professor Balfour as follows: "During the Carboniferous epoch there was in the region of Sokotra a shallow sea, in which was deposited, on the top of the fundamental gneisses of this spot, ...
Atavus, a great-great-great-grandfather or ancestor), the term given in biology to the reproduction in a living person or animal of the characteristics of an ancestor more remote than its parents (see HEREDITY).
You need to have a basic understanding of how things work in biology.