Stands an obelisk commemorating the battle fought here on the 25th of April 1707, in which the French under the duke of Berwick, a natural son of James II.
There are in England fourteen congregations in connexion with the Church of Scotland, six of them in London and the remainder in Berwick, Northumberland, Carlisle and Lancashire.
The Scots under Leslie followed him, occupied Doon Hill commanding the town, and seized the passes between Dunbar and Berwick which Cromwell had omitted to secure.
The chief bridge, which carries the high road from Edinburgh to Berwick, was built by John Rennie in 1807.
Murray's influence, however, being now supreme, he embarked in December for France, but was driven by storms on to Holy Island, where he was detained, and was subsequently, on the 18th of January 1564, seized at Berwick and sent by Elizabeth to the Tower, whence he was soon liberated and proceeded to France.
War broke out with England, but James, made a prisoner by his nobles, was unable to prevent Albany and his ally, Richard, duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard III.), from taking Berwick and marching to Edinburgh.
He entered the House of Commons as Liberal member for Berwick-on-Tweed in 1885, but he was best known as a country gentleman with a taste for sport, and as amateur champion tennis-player.
At Berwick, but in breach of this oath, which had been renewed.
Previous to these two latter successes the king had made two raids into the north of England; after which Buittle, Dalswinton and Dumfries were reduced, and Berwick was threatened.
By the close of 1313 Berwick, Stirling and Bothwell alone remained English.
With the whole available feudal levy of England, and a contingent from Ireland, he advanced from Berwick to Falkirk, which he reached on the 22nd of June 1314.
As a result of Bannockburn, Bruce's queen was restored to her husband; Stirling was delivered up to the Scots; the north of England was ravaged, and Carlisle and Berwick were besieged.
On his return Bruce addressed himself to the siege of Berwick, a standing menace to Scotland.
Another attempt by Adam Newton, guardian of the Friars Minorite at Berwick, had a more ignominious result.
In March 1318 the town and soon afterwards the castle of Berwick capitulated, and Bruce wasted the English border as far as Ripon.
Joanna, Edward's sister, was to be given in marriage to David, the infant son of Bruce, born subsequent to the settlement of 1318 and now recognized as heir to the crown, and the ceremony was celebrated at Berwick on the 12th of July 1328.
After a severe siege, Fuenterrabia surrendered to the duke of Berwick and his French troops in 1719; and in 1794 it again fell into the hands of the French, who so dismantled it that it has never since been reckoned by the Spaniards among their fortified places.
In 1746 he was licensed to preach, and in 1748 was chosen minister of a Presbyterian congregation at Carlisle, where he remained until 1760, when he removed to a similar charge at Berwick-on-Tweed.
During his residence in Berwick, Henry commenced his History of Great Britain, written on a new plan; but, owing to the difficulty of consulting the original authorities, he did not make much progress with the work until his removal to Edinburgh in 1768.
There were various minor skirmishes in 1862 and 1863 (including the capture of the Federal camp at Berwick Bay in June 1863).
In July 1639, after the signature of the treaty of Berwick, Montrose was one of the Covenanting leaders who visited Charles.
The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
Among his more notable examples are the Royal Border bridge at Berwick-onTweed, the High Level bridge at Newcastle-on-Tyne, the Britannia tubular bridge over the Menai Straits, the Conway tubular bridge, and the Victoria tubular bridge over the St Lawrence at Montreal.
Gave the charge of the West March to Northumberland, while Henry Percy received the castles of Bamburgh, Roxburgh and Berwick, and the wardenship of the East March, with a salary of 3000 in peace time and L12,000 in war.
In 1689 Newry was set on fire by the duke of Berwick when in retreat before Schomberg.
At the same time he spoke of the treachery of Marlborough and Berwick, and of one other, presumably Oxford, whom he refused to name, all of whom were in communication with Hanover.'
Wide, through the middle of which the main road from Dunbar to Berwick runs.
The artillery was posted on the Dunbar side of the burn, directly opposite and north of Doon, the infantry and cavalry crossed where they could, and formed up gradually in a line south of and roughly parallel to the Berwick road, the extreme left of horse and foot, acting as a reserve, crossed at Brocksmouth House on the outer flank.
NORTH BERWICK, a royal and police burgh of Haddingtonshire, Scotland.
Immediately to the south rises the fine cone of North Berwick Law (612 ft.), which was utilized as a signal point at the period of the Napoleonic scare.
Of North Berwick is Dirleton, with a castle dating from the 12th century.
He was licensed as preacher on the 3rd of February 1845, and on the 6th of August ordained as minister of Golden Square Church, Berwick-on-Tweed.
Of Berwick-on-Tweed by the North British railway via Burnmouth.
He studied law in Portsmouth, N.H., and practised at Berwick, Maine, and at Durham, N.H.
Its author declared later that it procured him an honorary membership of the patriotic societies of Carlisle, Berwick and Newcastle.
The second volume, published in 1810, gives an account of the seven southeastern counties of Scotland - Roxburgh, Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Peebles and Selkirk - each of them being treated of as regards name, situation and extent, natural objects, antiquities, establishment as shires, civil history, agriculture, manufactures and trade, and ecclesiastical history.
In 1291 appointed John de Berwick custodian of the abbey so that he might pay their debts from the issues of their estates, allowing them enough for their maintenance, and Edward II.
JAMES FITZJAMES BERWICK, DUKE OF (1670-1734), marshal of France, was the natural son of James, duke of York,.
He then returned to England, was made a colonel of the 8th Foot, and in 1687 created duke of Berwick, earl of Teignmouth and Baron Bosworth.
Berwick was made a peer of France by Louis XIV., and duke of Liria and of Xereca and lieutenant of Aragon by Philip. Thenceforward Berwick was recognized as one of the greatest generals of his time, and successively commanded in nearly all the theatres of war.
The last great event of the War of the Spanish Succession was the storming of Barcelona by Berwick, after a long siege, on the 11th of September 1714.
Many years of peace followed this campaign, and Marshal Berwick was not again called to serve in the field till 1733.
The Memoires of Marshal Berwick, revised, annotated and continued by the Abbe Hooke, were published by the marshal's grandson in 1778.
In 1714 it was taken after an obstinate resistance by the duke of Berwick in the interests of Philip V., and at the close of the war was reluctantly reconciled to the Bourbon dynasty.
Eventually, in October 1357, after several interruptions, a treaty was signed at Berwick by which the Scottish estates undertook to pay ioo,000 marks as a ransom for their king.
In 1734 his cousin, the duke of Liria, afterwards duke of Berwick, who was proceeding to join Don Carlos in his struggle for the crown of Naples, passed through Rome.
In 1810 the combined population of Llanelly, with its four subsidiary hamlets of Berwick, Glyn, Hencoed and Westowe, only amounted to 2972; in 1840 the inhabitants of the borough hamlet alone had risen to 4173.
BERWICK - UPON-TWEED, a market town, seaport, municipal borough and county in itself, of England, at the mouth of the Tweed on the north bank, 339 m.
For parliamentary purposes it is in the Berwick-upon-Tweed division of Northumberland.
The custom of specially mentioning Berwick-upon-Tweed after Wales, though abandoned in acts of parliament, is retained in certain proclamations.
The liberties of the borough, commonly called Berwick Bounds, include the towns of Spittal, at the mouth, and Tweedmouth immediately above it, on the south bank of the river.
Berwick-upon-Tweed is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
Very little is known of the history of Berwick before the Conquest.
It was not until the Tweed became the boundary between England and Scotland in the 12th century that Berwick as the chief town on that boundary became really important.
Until the beginning of the 14th century Berwick was one of the four royal boroughs of Scotland, and although it possesses no charter granted before that time, an inquisition taken in Edward III.'s reign shows that it was governed by a mayor and bailiffs in the reign of Alexander III., who granted the town to the said mayor and the commonalty for an annual rent.
Had conquered Berwick in 1302 he gave the burgesses another charter, no longer existing but quoted in several confirmations, by which the town was made a free borough with a gild merchant.
While the war with Scotland dragged on through the early years of the reign of Edward II., the fortification of Berwick was a matter of importance, and in 1317 the mayor and bailiffs undertook to defend it for the yearly sum of 6000 marks; but in the following year, "owing to their default," the Scots entered and occupied it in spite of a truce between the two kingdoms. After Edward III.
Had recovered Berwick the inhabitants petitioned for the recovery of their prison called the Beffroi or Bell-tower, the symbol of their independence, which their predecessors had built before the time of Alexander III., and which had been granted to William de Keythorpe when Edward I.
Granted the incorporation charter in 1604; but on his accession to the English throne, Berwick of course lost its importance as a frontier town.
Berwick was at first represented in the court of the four boroughs and in 1326 in Robert Bruce's parliament.
In 1482 the burgesses were allowed to send two members to the English parliament, and were represented there until 1885, when the town was included in the Berwick-upon-Tweed division of the county of Northumberland.
No manufactures are mentioned as having been carried on in Berwick, but its trade, chiefly in the produce of the surrounding country, was important in the 12th century.