Mariel, Cabanas, Banes, Sagua la Grande and Baracoa on the N., and Manzanillo, Santa Cruz, Batabano and Trinidad on the S.
Gran Piedra rises more than 5200 ft., the Ojo del Toro more than 33 00, the Anvil de Baracoa is somewhat lower, and Pan de Matanzas is about 1267 ft.
The range near Baracoa is extremely wild and broken.
At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar position.
Bananas are grown particularly in the region about Nipe, Gibara and Baracoa, whence they are exported in large quantities, though there is a tendency to lessen their culture in these parts in favour of sugar.
Of other agricultural crops those of fruits are of greatest importance - bananas (which are planted about once in three years), pine-apples (planted about once in five years), coco-nuts, oranges, &c. The coco-nut industry has long been largely confined to the region about Baracoa, owing to the ruin of the trees elsewhere by a disease not yet thoroughly understood, which, appearing finally near Baracoa, threatened by 1908 to destroy the industry there as well.
Baracoa (the landing point), Bayamo, Santiago de Cuba, Puerto Principe, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad and the original Havana were all founded by 1515.
BARACOA, a seaport city of N.E.
The hill called the "Anvil of Baracoa" (about 3000 ft.) is remarkable for its extremely regular formation.
Baracoa is the oldest town in Cuba, having been settled by Diego Velazquez in 1512.
In 1522 it received the arms and title of ciudad, and its church was made the cathedral of the island (Baracoa losing the honour).
Both honours were taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce.
Until the middle of the 1 8th century Baracoa was almost without connexion with Havana and Santiago.