Authorship and Date.
For discussion of his authorship of the Lancelot cf.
And as all the writings bear the marks of a single authorship it has been assumed, especially by Denifle, that "the Friend of God" is a literary creation of Merswin and that the whole collection of literature is the work of Merswin (and his school), tendencyliterature designed to set forth the ideals of the movement to which he had given his life.
At that time I eagerly absorbed everything I read without a thought of authorship, and even now I cannot be quite sure of the boundary line between my ideas and those I find in books.
His first work was an inquiry into the authorship of the Commentary on St Paul's Epistles and the Treatise on Biblical Questions, ascribed to Ambrose and Augustine respectively.
In the same year there appeared in Danzig an anonymous satire, Pope a Metaphysician (Pope ein Metaphysiker), the authorship of which soon transpired.
The authorship of an anonymous work, Squitinio della libertd Veneta, published at Mirandola in 1612, has been attributed to him.
Antonius Gnipho, and Ateius Praetextatus to the authorship have been supported by modern scholars.
But it seems improbable that the question of authorship will ever be satisfactorily settled.
They are closely related in origin, style, diction and thought, and occupy so distinct a place in these respects that the Pauline authorship of them has been much questioned.
It contains nothing distinctly Christian, and it contains nothing of great value; therefore its authorship is a matter of little consequence.
He infers, from these facts, that there is no sure evidence for the authorship of the fourth and fifth treatises.
So in Scotland, Thomas Erskine and Thomas Chalmers - the latter in contradiction to his earlier position - hold that the doctrine of salvation, when translated into experience, furnishes " internal evidence " - a somewhat broader use of the phrase than when it applies merely to evidence of date or authorship drawn from the contents of a book.
There are strong arguments against Robert Wedderburn's authorship, as maintained by Laing and others.
Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.
But thus " idle " though he may have been as a " student," he already meditated authorship. In the first long vacation - during which he, doubtless with some sarcasm, says that " his taste for books began to revive " - he contemplated a treatise on the age of Sesostris, in which (and it was characteristic) his chief object was to investigate not so much the events as the probable epoch of the reign of that semi-mythical monarch, whom he was inclined to regard as having been contemporary with Solomon.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
As regards doctrine, the work is exhaustive; but it is diffuse, obscure, and occasionally selfcontradictory, as might be expected in a work which consists of a number of unconnected paragraphs of various authorship and date.
His principal single production, representing his scholarly method and conservative conclusions, was The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel: External Evidences (1880; second edition, by J.
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
The contents are as varied as the authorship, and, most of the Rowley.
The evidence in favour of Gauden's authorship rests chiefly on his own assertions and those of his wife (who after his death sent to her son John a narrative of the claim), and on the fact that it was admitted by Clarendon, who sould have had means of being acquainted with the truth.
But it is contended that the work was in existence at Naseby, 1 and testimony to Charles's authorship is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen Charles himself occupied with it at various times during his imprisonment.
Doubt was thrown on Charles's authorship in Milton's Eikonoklastes (1649), which was followed almost immediately by a royalist answer, The Princely Pelican.
He eloquently advocated Charles's authorship. Since he wrote in 1829, some further evidence has been forthcoming in favour of the Naseby copy.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
The treatises are nearly all anterior to the 7th century, and most appear to belong to the 3rd and 4th centuries; some are the work of authentic authors like Zosimus and Synesius, while of others, such as profess to be written by Moses, Democritus, Ostanes, &c., the authorship is clearly fictitious.
No doubt of the Pauline authorship was expressed in ancient times; nor is there any lack of early use by writers who make no direct quotation, to raise doubts as to the genuineness of the epistle.
Among the most important points in which the ideas and implications of Ephesians suggest an authorship and a period other than that of Paul are the following: (a) The union of Gentiles and Jews in one body is already accomplished.
As to the canonicity and apostolic authorship of the Johannine Apocalypse no doubts were ever entertained in the West; indeed an Apocalypse of Peter was still retained in the canon in the 3rd century.
The authorship of the writings ascribed to him in several biographical notices rests on no better authority than the apocryphal statements of Thomas Dempster.
The question of the authorship cannot, however, be decided without considering the internal evidence, the interpretation of which in the case of the Third Gospel and the Acts (the other writing attributed to Luke) is a matter of peculiar interest.
This linguistic evidence, which is of quite unusual force, has never yet been fairly faced by those who deny Luke's authorship of Acts.
Indeed it is easier to explain some of the differences between the Acts and St Paul's Epistles on this assumption than on that of authorship by a writer who would have felt more dependent upon the information which might be gathered from those Epistles, and who would have been more likely to have had a collection of them at hand, if his work was composed c. A.D.
The original story was probably contained in an old epic poem called Mcvuas 7roeiats, the authorship of which was ascribed to Prodicus of Phocaea.
He was a good palaeographer, and excelled in textual criticism, in examination of authorship, and other such matters, while his vast erudition and retentive memory made him second to none in interpretation and exposition.
The existence of a tradition in the last three centuries before Christ as to the authorship of any book is (to those acquainted with the habits of thought of that age) of but little critical moment; the Sopherim, i.e.
Even if, by a bold assumption, we grant the unity of authorship, it is plain upon the face of it that the chapters in question cannot have been composed at the same time or under the same circumstances; literary and artistic unity is wholly wanting.
The details of the tradition of authorship show considerable variation; according to the Talmudic view Adam is author of the Sabbath psalm, xcii., and Melchizedek of Ps.
1, but it certainly has a much wider meaning; and indeed in some cases the idea of authorship is out of the question, for the psalms ascribed to the Korahites can scarcely have been supposed to be the joint composition of that body.
Now we have seen that the 5 prefixed to n-'p 'p cannot refer to authorship; we seem therefore shut up to one of two alternatives, either the psalms inscribed 's?
We have endeavoured to show that the ascription " to David " in these groups did not originally denote authorship by David, and that, notwithstanding the subscription of Ps.