Having taken priest's orders, he held in 1524 a cure in the neighbourhood of Augsburg, but soon (1525) went over to the Reformed party at Nuremberg and became preacher at Gustenfelden.
It refused to subscribe the Augsburg Recess, but at the same time it was not till 1536 that it was persuaded to join the League of Schmalkalden.
At length the hostility of the princes was overcome, and in December 1282 Rudolph invested his sons Albert and Rudolph with the duchies of Austria and Styria at Augsburg, and so laid the foundations of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.
Michael Maestlin in 1579 determined the relative positions of eleven stars in the Pleiades (Historia coelestis Lucii Baretti, Augsburg, 1666), and A.
Not interpreting this as applying to works printed outside Ulm, he published in 1538 at Augsburg his Guldin Arch (with pagan parallels to Christian sentiments) and at Frankfort his Germaniae clzronicon, with the result that he had to leave Ulm in January 1539.
Historia trevirensis diplomatica et pragmatics (3 vols., Augsburg, 1750); Marx, Geschichte des Erzstifts Trier (5 vols., Trier, 1858-1864); Leonardy, Geschichte des trierischen Landes and Volkes (Saarlouis, 1871); Woerl, Fiihrer durch die Stadt Trier (8th ed., Leipzig, 1898).
Anselm's Apologia contra insipientem Gaunilonem (c. 110o); or the Lutheran Apology for the Augsburg Confession (1531); or J.
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
- At the last General Synod (1909) they repeated their old fundamental principle that "the Holy Scriptures are our only rule of faith and practice"; but at the same time they declared that their interpretation of Scripture agreed substantially with the Nicene Creed, the Westminster and Augsburg Confessions, and the Thirty-nine Articles.
He denounced the peace of Augsburg as a pact with heresy; nor would he recognize the abdication of Charles V.
This last was a formula issued on the 25th of June 1580 (the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession) by the Lutheran Church in an attempt to heal the breach which, since the death of Luther, had been widening between the extreme Lutherans and the Crypto-Calvinists.
The editio princeps of the original appeared at Augsburg (1471); that of Haverkamp (Leiden, 1738 and 1767) has now been superseded by C. Zangemeister, who has edited the Hist.
Augsburg it became known as Tabula peutingeriana.
Corps and cavalry to observe the Austrians, pressed on to Augsburg with the others so as to be ready to deal with the Russians.
On his return from Spain, seeing war imminent, he issued a series of march orders (which deserve the closest study in detail) by which on the 15th of April his whole army was to be concentrated for manoeuvres between Regensburg, Landshut, Augsburg and Donauwbrth, and sending on the Guard in wagons to Strassburg, he despatched Berthier to act as commander-in-chief until his own arrival.
On the 16th Berthier went on to Augsburg, where he learnt that Lefebvre's advanced troops had been driven out of Landshut, thus opening a great gap seventy-six miles wide between the two wings of the French army.
In reply he immediately wrote: " You do not inform me what has rendered necessary such an extraordinary measure which weakens and divides my troops "- and - " I cannot quite grasp the meaning of your letter yet, I should have preferred to see my army concentrated between Ingolstadt and Augsburg, the Bavarians in the first line, with the duke of Danzig in his old position, until we know what the enemy is going to do.
About noon Berthier returned and after hearing his explanation Massena received orders to move from Augsburg towards Ingolstadt.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
They comprised two parties: (1) the followers of Capito, Carlstadt and Bucer, who at the diet of Augsburg presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana from Strassburg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen; (2) the followers of the Swiss reformer Zwingli, who to the same diet presented his private confession of faith.
After holding their own view for some years the four cities accepted the Confession of Augsburg, and were merged in the general body of Lutherans; but Zwingli's position was incorporated in the Helvetic Confession.
His two last missions were at Rome (1557) and at the Diet of Augsburg (1559).
He gained a temporary victory when the diet of Augsburg in 1500 established a council of regency (Reichsregiment), and in 1502 persuaded the electors to form a union to uphold the reforms of 1495 and 1500.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
Worthy of special notice also are Photometria (Augsburg, 1760), Insigniores orbitae cometarum proprietates (Augsburg, 1761), and Beitrcige zum Gebrauche der Mathematik and deren Anwendung (4 vols., Berlin, 1765-1772).
Proclaimed them the enemies of God and humanity, refused to receive their ambassadors, and finally, at the famous battle of the Lechfeld, overwhelmed them on the very scene of their first victory, near Augsburg, which they were besieging (Aug.
Other relics belonging to this period are the oath which John Hunyady took when elected governor of Hungary (1446); a few verses sung by the children of Pest at the coronation of his son Matthias (1458); 1 An example of this work, printed on vellum in Gothic letter (Augsburg, 1488), and formerly belonging to the library of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, may be seen in the British Museum.
Generally less varied and romantic, though easier in style, are the heroic poems Augsburgi iitkozet (Battle of Augsburg) and Aradi gyules (Diet of Arad) of Gregory Czuczor, who was, moreover, very felicitous as an epigrammatist.
The original, which consisted of a preface and thirteen books, is not lost, but we have a Latin translation of the first six books and a fragment of another on polygonal numbers by Xylander of Augsburg (1575), and Latin and Greek translations by Gaspar Bachet de Merizac (1621-1670).
Becker, Die Pfalz and die Pfiilzer (Leipzig, 1857); Mehlis, Fahrten durch die Pfalz (Augsburg, 1877); Kranz, Handbuch der Pfalz (Spires, 1902); Hensen, Pfalzfiihrer (Neustadt, 1905); and Nailer, Die Burgen der rheinischen Pfalz (Strassburg, 1887).
Of a controversial character are the Confessio Catholica, (1633-1637), an extensive work which seeks to prove the evangelical and catholic character of the doctrine of the Augsburg Confession from the writings of approved Roman Catholic authors; and the Loci communes theologici (1610-1622), his principal contribution.
In the 14th century there were schools at Mainz, Strassburg, Frankfort, Wiirzburg, Zurich and Prague; in the 15th at Augsburg and Nuremberg, the last becoming in the following century, under Hans Sachs, the most famous of all.
In 1565, like many other English exiles, he made his headquarters at Louvain, and after a visit to the Imperial Diet at Augsburg in 1566, in attendance upon Commendone, who had been largely instrumental in the reconciliation of England with Rome in Mary's reign, he threw himself into the literary controversy between Bishop Jewel (q.v.) and Harding.
Stieve, Die Reichsstadt Kaufbeuren and die bayrische Restaurationspolitik (Munich, 1870); and Schroder, Geschichte der Stadt and Katholischen Pfarrei Kaufbeuren (Augsburg, 1903).
Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of England, 49 o; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889.
Otto failed to take Mainz and Augsburg; but an attempt on the part of Conrad and Ludolf to gain support from the Magyars, who had seized the opportunity to invade Bavaria, alienated many of their supporters.
He returned to Augsburg in 1720, but became parish minister of Kaufbeuren in 1723.
In 1731 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin, and was invited to Augsburg as pastor and senior minister of the church of St Ulrich.
He also wrote Tentamen Introductionis in Historiam Doctrinae de Ideis, afterwards completed and republished under the title of Historia Philosophicae Doctrinae de Ideis (Augsburg, 1723); Otium Vindelicum (1731); Kurze Fragen aus door philosophischen Historic (7 vols., Ulm, 1731-1736), a history of philosophy in question and answer, containing many details, especially in the department of literary history, which he omitted in his chief work; Pinacoiheca Scriptorum nostra aetate literis illustrium, &c. (Augsburg, 1741-1755); Ehrentempel der deutschen Gelehrsamkeit (Augsburg, 1747-1749); Institutiones Historiae Philosophicae (Leipzig, 1747 and 1756; 3rd ed.
Born (1743-1807) of Leipzig, in 1790); Miscellanea Historiae Philosophicae Literariae Criticae olim sparsim edita (Augsburg, 1748); Erste Anfangsgrunde der philosophischen Geschichte (Ulm, 1751).
In the Religious Peace of Augsburg the principle" cujus regio ejus religio "was accepted; by it a ruler's choice between Catholicism and Lutheranism bound his subjects, but any subject unwilling to accept the decision might emigrate without hindrance.
As king of England he concluded treaties of alliance with the members of the League of Augsburg and sent a large army to oppose the French in Flanders.
He was present at the Marburg conference in 1529, at the Augsburg diet in 1530 and at the signing of the Schmalkald articles in 1537, and took part in other public transactions of importance in the history of the Reformation; that he had an exceptionally large number of personal enemies was due to his vehemence, coarseness and arrogance in controversy.
The introduction of the Augsburg Interim in 1548 necessitated his departure from Nuremberg; he went first to Breslau, and afterwards settled at Konigsberg as professor in its new university at the call of Duke Albert of Prussia.
The Confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon, revised by Luther, and presented to the emperor Charles V.
An elaborate Apology for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with the confession, the articles of Lutheran.
ALEXANDER ALES (ALESIUS) (1500-1565), Scottish divine of the school of Augsburg, whose family name was Alane, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of April 1500.
After travelling in various countries of northern Europe, he settled down at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon, and signed the Augsburg confession.
The personal contact between Luther and Zwingli led to no mental rapprochement between the two; but in the following year the Articles of Marburg did good service as one of the preliminaries to the Augsburg Confession, and remain a valuable document for the fundamental principles common to the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.
In 1545 he became minister of the Italian Protestant congregation at Augsburg, which he was compelled to forsake when, in January 1547, the city was occupied by the imperial forces in the Schmalkaldic War.
In addition to the books already named, he wrote Italian expositions of Romans (Geneva, 1545) and Galatians (Augsburg, 1546).
It was before him that the Reformer appeared at the diet of Augsburg; and it was he who, in 1519, helped in drawing up the bull of excommunication against Luther.
In the train of Quintana he witnessed at Bologna the double coronation of Charles in February 1530, visited Augsburg, and perhaps saw Luther at Coburg.
The conflicts between Catholics and Protestants speedily merged into the chronic political rivalries, domestic and foreign, which distracted the European states; and religious considerations played a very important part in diplomacy and war for at least a century and a half, from the diet of Augsburg in 1530 to the English revolution and the league of Augsburg, 1688-89.
In July 1518 a diet assembled in Augsburg to consider the new danger from the Turks, who were making rapid conquests under Sultan Selim I.
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had, long been raising his voice against the " parsons " (Pfaffen); the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, represented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away the very foundations of the papal monarchy.
He died at Augsburg in 1770.