He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).
The differences developed were chiefly between general atonement and atonement for the elect only and between mediate imputation and immediate imputation.
The most important writers are Yoseh ben Yoseh, probably in the 6th century, chiefly known for his compositions for the day of Atonement, Eleazar Qalir, the founder of the payyetanic style, perhaps in the 7th century, Seadiah, and the Spanish school consisting of Joseph ibn Abitur (died in 970), Ibn Gabirol, Isaac Gayyath, Moses ben Ezra, Abraham ben Ezra and Judah ha-levi, who will be mentioned below; later, Moses ben Nahman and Isaac Luria the Kabbalist.'
But by treating the atonement simply as revealed (and unexplained) matter of fact - in spite of some partial analogies in human experience, a thing essentially anomalous - Butler repeats, and applies to the moral contents of Christianity, what Aquinas said of its speculative doctrines.
Thomas Arnold, criticizing Edward Hawkins, appeals rather to the atonement as deeper neglected truth.
Two goats were provided by the ancient Hebrews on the Day of Atonement; the high priest sent one into the desert, after confessing on it the sins of Israel; it was not permitted to run free but was probably cast over a precipice; the other was sacrificed as a sin-offering.
Ezekiel prescribes a half-yearly ritual of sin-offering whereby atonement was to be made (xlv.
The ideas of expiation and atonement so prevalent in Ezekiel's scheme, which there find expression in the half-yearly sacrificial celebrations, are expressed in Lev.
On the great day of atonement the high priest appears in a vicarious and representative capacity, and offers on behalf of the whole nation which he was considered to embody in his sacred person.
He edited in 1860 The Atonement, a collection of essays by various hands, prefaced by his study of the "Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement."
This fellowship with the glorified Christ rather than a less spiritual trust in his death and atonement is with him the essential thing.
700, was twice blessed; not only was it an act of atonement in itself, like fasting and flagellation; it also gained for the pilgrim the merit of having stood on holy ground.
Lengerke recognized a double motive: the lamb for atonement, the unleavened bread as a trace of the haste of the early harvest.
Neuen Testamente (1841-1844; 2nd ed., 1857-1860); DerSchriftbeweis (1852-1856; 2nd ed., 18 571860); Die heilige Schrift des neuen Testaments zusammenhangend untersucht (1862-1875); Schutzschriften (1856-1859), in which he defends himself against the charge of denying the Atonement; and Theologische Ethik (1878).
This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.
24); (8) vicarious atonement (chap. liii.).
He held a prominent place in the New School branch of the Presbyterians, to which he adhered on the division of the denomination in 1837; he had been tried (but not convicted) for heresy in 1836, the charge being particularly against the views expressed by him in Notes on Romans (1835) of the imputation of the sin of Adam, original sin and the atonement; the bitterness stirred up by this trial contributed towards widening the breach between the conservative and the progressive elements in the church.
But the obduracy of King Pagan, who had succeeded his father in 1846, led to the refusal alike of atonement for past wrongs, of any expression of regret for the display of gratuitous insolence, and of any indication of a desire to maintain friendship for the future.
His chief writings were: An essay in Lux Mundi on "The Incarnation as the Basis of Dogma" (1889); a paper, Belief in a Personal God (1891); Reason and Religion (1896), a protest against the limitation of the reason to the understanding; Ministerial Priesthood (1897); and Atonement and Personality (1901).
In this last work, by which he is chiefly known, he aimed at presenting an explanation and a vindication of the doctrine of the Atonement by the help of the conception of personality.
27) after the regular daily sacrifice (in the synagogues a substitute - probably Adonay - was employed); 4 on the Day of Atonement the High Priest uttered the name ten times in his prayers and benediction.
A treatise entitled The Atonement; its Reality, Completeness and Extent (1861) was based upon a smaller work which first appeared in 1845.
Swedenborg wholly rejects the orthodox doctrine of atonement; and the unity of God, as opposed to his idea of the trinity of the church, is an essential feature of his teaching.
A new statement of the doctrine of the Atonement, proposed by Horace Bushnell (1802-1876) about 1850, provoked great controversy, but during the later years of the 19th century was widely accepted under the title of the "New Theology."
The synodical decision in regard to the five points is contained in the canons adopted at the 136th session held on the 23rd of April 1619; the points were: unconditional election, limited atonement, total depravity, irresistibility of grace, final perseverance of the saints.
ATONEMENT and DAY OF Atonement.
A doctrine of atonement makes the following presuppositions.
Most theories of atonement would combine two or more of these, and would include repentance and amendment.
Some or all of the conditions of atonement may be fulfilled, according to various views, either by the sinner or vicariously on his behalf by some kinsman; or by his family, clan or nation; or by some one else.
In the Old Testament, " atonement," " make an atonement " represent the Hebrew kippur and its derivatives.
The atoning ritual reached its climax on the Day of Atonement e"??? ?i, aj p. pa E eX a6µou, in the Mishna simply " the Day " Yoma), observed annually on the 10th day of the 7th month (Tisri), in the autumn, about October, shortly before the Feast of Tabernacles or vintage festival.
The laws of the Day of Atonement belong to the Priestly Code.4 There is no trace of this function before the exile; the earliest reference to any such special time of atonement being the proposal of Ezek.
18-20 to establish two days of atonement, in the first and seventh months.'
In later Judaism, especially from about ioo B.C., great stress was laid on the Day of Atonement, and it is now the most important religious function of the Jews.
The idea of vicarious atonement appears in the Old Testament in different forms. The nation suffers for the sin of the individual; 8 and the individual for the sin of his kinsfolk 7 or of the nation.
The Old Testament, however, only prepares the way for the Christian doctrine of the atonement; this is clear, inasmuch as its teaching is largely concerned with the nation, and hardly touches on the future life.
Later Judaism emphasized the idea of vicarious atonement for Israel through the sufferings of the righteous, especially the martyrs; but it is very doubtful whether the idea of the atonement through the death of the Messiah is a pre-Christian Jewish doctrine."
In the New Testament, the English version uses " atonement " 1 Lev.
But the idea which is now usually expressed by " atonement " is rather represented in the New Testament by iAaQµos and its cognates, e.g.
The leading varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with repentance and amendment of life.12 These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally.
The New Testament, however, does not indicate that its writers were agreed as to any formal dogma of the atonement, as regards the relation of the death of Christ to the sinner's restoration to God's favour; but various suggestions are made as to the solution of the problem.
Anselm and the scholastics regarded the atonement as an offering to God of such infinite value as to outweigh men's sins, a view sometimes styled the " Commerical Theory."
That the atonement took place not to satisfy the wrath of God, but in the practical interests of the divine government of the world, " The sufferings and death of the Son of God are an exemplary exhibition of God's hatred of moral evil, in connexion with which it is safe and prudent to remit that penalty, which so far as God and the divine attributes are concerned, might have been remitted without it."4
Dale's Atonement (1875), the special point of which is that the death of Christ is not required by the personal demand of God to be propitiated, but by the necessity of honouring an ideal law of righteousness; thus, " the death of Christ is the objective ground on which the sins of men are remitted, because it was an act of submission to the righteous authority of the law by which the human race was condemned.
5 Crawford, Scripture Doctrine of the Atonement, pp. 327 ff.
The benefits of the atonement are appropriated by " the acceptance of God's forgiveness in Christ, our self-identification with Christ's atoning attitude, and then working out, by the power of the life bestowed upon us, all the (moral and spiritual) consequence of forgiveness."
At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.
But there is also a widespread inclination to minimize, ignore or deny the objective aspect of the atonement, the effect of the death of Christ on God's attitude towards men; and to follow the moral theories in emphasizing the subjective aspect of the atonement, the influence of the Passion on man.
Crawford, Doctrine of the Holy Spirit respecting the Atonement (1871); R.