The antiseptic pine-laced air from the hallway made her nose wrinkle.
It is, however, a useful superficial caustic and antiseptic. All copper compounds are poisonous, but not so harmful as the copper arsenical pigments.
==Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics of Alcohol== Alcohol is of great medicinal value as a solvent, being used to form solutions of alkaloids, resins, volatile oils, iodoform, &c. In strength of about 10% and upwards it is an antiseptic. If applied to the skin it rapidly evaporates, thereby cooling the skin and diminishing the amount of sweat excreted.
Salicylic acid and salicin (q.v.) share the properties common to the group of aromatic acids, which, as a group, are antiseptic without being toxic to man - a property practically unique; are unstable in the body; are antipyretic and analgesic; and diminish the excretion of urea by the kidneys.
The application of ordinary antiseptic powders to leaves inside which a Fungus, such as a Uredo or Ustilago, is growing can only result in failtire, and similarly if tobacco fumes, for instance, are applied when the insects concerned are hibernating in the ground beneath.
Pyrogallol has antiseptic properties and is employed medicinally in the treatment of psoriasis.
In order to prevent decomposition of any proteid impurity which may remain incorporated with the rubber, the freshly coagulated rubber is sometimes cured in the smoke of burning wood or a small quantity of an antiseptic such as creosote is added during coagulation.
It is also an antiseptic and, in small quantities, a feeble anaesthetic. It is absorbed by the unbroken skin.
But by the addition of some antiseptic to the ointment its defensive action would be converted from passive to active, and its power to prevent infection would become greater; and if inflammation had already set up in the skin, the addition of opium, belladonna, or cocaine would lessen local pain; and an astringent, either metallic or organic, would restrain inflammation and accelerate repair.
Applied externally strychnine is a powerful antiseptic, but its poisonous nature prevents it from being used for this purpose.
For antiseptic purposes it has been prepared as "bromum solidificatum," which consists of kieselguhr or similar substance impregnated with about 75% of its weight of bromine.
It owes its value to the decomposition described above, by means of which a powerful antiseptic action is safely and continuously exerted.
It is used as an antiseptic and oxidizing agent.
The acid itself is a powerful antiseptic. When administered internally, it causes the appearance of hippuric acid in the urine.
- Sulphur itself has no action, but when brought into contact with the secretions it forms sulphides, sulphites and sulphuretted hydrogen, and thereby becomes more or less irritant and antiseptic. In the bowel its conversion into sulphides causes it to act as a mild laxative.
It is a more powerful antiseptic than carbolic acid, but its insolubility prevents its being used for the same purposes.
This or the biniodide of mercury is the last antiseptic applied to the surgeon's and assistants' hands before an operation begins.
But the most important therapeutic application of this drug is in gonorrhoea, where its antiseptic action is of much value.
Its principal action is as an antiseptic and disinfectant.
Nickel salts are antiseptic; they arrest fermentation and stop the growth of plants.
Thus carbolic acid or carbolized ammonia are sniffed into the nose to destroy the microbes there, or the nose is washed out by an antiseptic solution as a nasal douche; bismuth or morphine are insufflated, or zinc ointment is applied, to cover the mucous membrane, and protect it from further irritation; and various antiseptic gargles, paints and powders applied to the pharynx in order to prevent the microbic inflammation from extending to the pharynx and down the trachea and bronchi, for many a severe bronchitis begins first by sneezing and nasal irritation.
No case' of so-called " spontaneous generation " has withstood rigid investigation; but the discussion contributed to more exact ideas as to the ubiquity, minuteness, and high powers of resistance to physical agents of the spores of Schizomycetes, and led to more exact ideas of antiseptic treatments.
Externally it is antiparasitic, and is used in certain stages of eczema and psoriasis, and the alcoholic solution has been used in ringworm; internally it has been employed as an intestinal antiseptic in typhoid fever.
Against the bacteria quinine is not at all an exceptionally powerful antiseptic, though more powerful than carbolic acid.
But every antiseptic, however good is more or less toxic and irritating to a wounded surface.
The ultimate term of bacterial activity seems to be the production of ulmic acid, containing carbon 65.31 and hydrogen 3.85%, which is a powerful antiseptic. By the progressive elimination of oxygen and hydrogen, partly as water and partly as carbon dioxide and marsh gas, the ratios of carbon to oxygen and hydrogen in the rendered product increase in the following manner: The resulting product is a brown pasty or gelatinous substance which binds the more resisting parts of the plants into a compact mass.
A small percentage of cubebs is also commonly included in lozenges designed for use in bronchitis, in which the antiseptic and expectoral properties of the drug are useful.
In medicine iodine is frequently applied externally as a counterirritant, having powerful antiseptic properties.
Borax taken internally is of some value in irritability of the bladder, but as a urinary antiseptic it is now surpassed by several recently introduced drugs, such as urotropine.
In March 1626 he came to London, and when driving one day near Highgate, was taken with a desire to discover whether snow would act as an antiseptic. He stopped his carriage, got out at a cottage, purchased a fowl, and with his own hands assisted to stuff it with snow.
When considerably diluted they are only slightly irritating; externally applied and in the stomach they have an antiseptic action; they increase the secretion of saliva, and thus assuage thirst.
The hallway smelled medicinal and clean, like the antiseptic-laced air of a hospital mixed with pine cleaner.
As an antiseptic salicylic acid is somewhat less powerful than carbolic acid, but its insolubility renders it unsuitable for general use.
Experimental pathology has benefited by the use of antiseptic surgery in operations upon animals, and by the adoption of exact methods of recording.
The perchloride of mercury is another very powerful antiseptic used in solutions of strength I in 2000, I in 1000 and 1 in 500.
In medicine boracic acid is used in solution to relieve itching, but its chief use is as a mild antiseptic to impregnate lint or cotton-wool.
Used externally it is an antiseptic and disinfectant, and is used 5 to 10% in ointments in the treatment of chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema of a sub-acute character.
It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
The ortho-acid, in the form of its aqueous solution, is sometimes used as an antiseptic, under the name of aseptol.
Thus in the eye and ear, lotions containing an antiseptic, a sedative and an astringent are very generally used.
Quinine has considerable powers as an .antiseptic, this term defined for some time as indicating the power to kill bacteria.
Externally chloroforrr ‘ is an antiseptic, a local anaesthetic if allowed to evaporate, and a rubefacient, causing the vessels of the skin to dilate, if rubbed in.
It acts as a weak antiseptic. It is used for enriching coal gas, as a vermin killer, in the manufacture of certain azo dyes, and in the preparation of phthalic acid (q.v.).
This releases chloric acid, which, being an extremely powerful antiseptic, kills the bacteria to which the ulcers are due.
Thus if a little diphtheritic sputum were coughed into a person's eye, or some blood containing anthrax bacilli were to touch a raw spot upon the hand, the removal of microbes in either case by washing with simple water might be regarded as a means of passive defence, whilst washing them away with an antiseptic lotion might be regarded as active defence, because the antiseptic would tend not only to remove but to destroy the microbes.