Had much of the churchmanship of Godfrey and Baldwin I.; but he appears most decidedly as an incessant warrior, under whom the Latin domination in the East stretched, as Ibn al-Athir writes, in a long line from Mardin in the North to el-Arish on the Red Sea - a line only broken by the Mahommedan powers of Aleppo, Hamah, Horns and Damascus.
Oppositifolia, Silene acauhs, and ai naphalium tuteo-al bum.
He strode through the crowded Egyptian street market, the Khan al-Khalili, one of the oldest markets in the world.
Chemical industries show an output worth 2,640,000 in 1902 al against 1,040,000 in 1893.
An inventory of those subjects, the exportation of which can in no case be permitted, has been prepared; and the ministry has at its disposal a fund of 200,000 for the purchase of important works of art of al] kinds.
Nathan, Vent Anni di ua ital,iana altraverso al(Annuario (Rome, 1906); G.
There was also the danger that Austria might join the allies first and Piedmont be, left isolated; but there were also strong arguments on the other side, for while the Radical party saw no obvious reason why Piedmont should fight other peoples battles, and therefore opposed the alliance, there was the risk that Austria might join the al]iance together with Piedmont, which would have constituted a disastrous situation.
~ but al troops, under General Lamoricire, were I~reparing to too press it.
Pal ~dom On the 13th of February the fortress surrendered, sol Francis and his family having departed by sea for lasi al territory.
Bertolinis Storia dItalia dat 1814 al 1878, in 2 parts (Milan, 1880 1881).
Franchetti, Storia d Jtalia dat 1789 al 799; G.
Are the amplitudes of the component harmonic waves of periods 24, 12, 8 and 6 hours; al, a2, a 3, a 4, are the corresponding phase angles.
By withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to Harun al-Rashid, Nicephorus committed himself to a war with the Saracens.
Pais, " La Sardegna avanti al dominio dei Romani " in Memorie dei Lincei (1881); R.
Toscanelli e la Toscana dal 1815 al 1862 (Rome, 1909).
AVICENNA [Abu 'Ali al-Husain ibn 'Abdallah ibn Sinai (980-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the district of Bokhara.
Shams al-Ma t adi Qabus, the generous ruler of Dailam, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom he had expected to find an asylum, was about that date (1012) starved to death by his own revolted soldiery.
It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar.
Reproduction, of the Al-Shifa'.
Like Kepler and all his contemporaries he believed in astrology, and he certainly also had some faith in the power of magic, for there is extant a deed written in his own handwriting containing a contract between himself and Robert Logan of Restalrig, a turbulent baron of desperate character, by which Napier undertakes "to serche and sik out, and be al craft and ingyne that he dow, to tempt, trye, and find out" some buried treasure supposed to be hidden in Logan's fortress at Fastcastle, in consideration of receiving one-third part of the treasure found by his aid.
(27,000), Salta (18,000), Corrientes (18,000), Chivilcoy (15,000), Gualeguaychu (13,300), San Nicolas (13,000), Concordia (11,700), San Juan (11,500), Rio Cuarto (10,800), San Luis (10,500), Barracas al Sud (10,200).
Psammophytes.These are plants which grow on sand and al avel.
The Caliph al-Mamun (c. A.D.
815), the son and successor ci Harun al-Rashid, caused an Arabic version of Ptolemy's great astronomical work (rat, meyio-Tf) to be made, which is known as the Almagest, the word being nothing more than the Gr.
µeytar' with the Arabic article al prefixed.
Murray, as the result of his study, g divided the earth's surface into three zones - the continental to Al d ay.
' Abul Hassan Ali, al Reza, commonly known as Imam Reza, the eighth imam of the Shiites, a son of Musa al Kazim, the seventh imam, was the leader from whom the party of the Alids (Shiites) had such hopes under the caliphate of Mamun.
Gold coins (dinars) of this caliph are extant on which al Reza's name appears with the title of heir-apparent.
All these writers, however, are entirely eclipsed by the commanding personality of the most famous of the Geonim, Seadiah ben Joseph (q.v.) of Sura, often called al-Fayyumi (of the Fayum in Egypt), one of the greatest representatives of Jewish learning of all times, who died in 942.
(partly in Arabic) not only numerous Responsa, but also treatises on law, commentaries on the Mishnah and the Bible, a lexicon called in Arabic al-Hawi, and poems such as the Musar Haskel, but most of them are now lost or known only from translations or.
Of their first important authors, Benjamin al-Nehawendi and Daniel al-Qumisi (both in the 9th century), little is preserved.
In the 10th century Jacob al-Qirqisani wrote his Kitab al-anwar, on law, Solomon ben Yeruham (against Seadiah) and Yefet ben 'Ali wrote exegetical works; in the 11th century Abu'l-faraj Furgan, exegesis, and Yusuf al-Basir against Samuel ben Hophni.
His system was' adopted by Abu'l-walid ibn Jannah, of Saragossa (died early in the nth century), in his lexicon (Kitab al-usul, in Arabic) and other works.
About 1140), wrote in Arabic a philosophical work based on Greek and Arabic as well as Jewish authorities, known by the name of the Hebrew translation as Arugath ha-bosem, and the Kitab al-Mahadarah, of great value for literary history.
1234), also a great Talmudist, wrote in Arabic Ma`aseh Yerushalmi, on oaths, and Kitab al-Kifayah, theology.
Somewhat earlier in the 13th century lived Judah al-IIarizi, who belongs in spirit to the time of Ibn Gabirol and Judah ha-levi.
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.
In the East, Tanhum ben Joseph of Jerusalem was the author of commentaries (not to be confounded with the Midrash Tanhuma) on many books of the Bible, and of an extensive lexicon (Kitab al-Murshid) to the Mishnah, all in Arabic.
According to Moslem traditionists Mahomet declared that one of his descendants, the imam of God, who would fill the earth with equity and justice, would bear the name of al-mandi.
It was under the name of al-mandi that Mokhtar proclaimed `Ali's son Mahommed as the opponent of the caliph Abdalmalik, and, according to Shahrastani, the doctrine of the mandi, the hidden deliverer who is one day to appear and fill the oppressed world with righteousness, first arose in connexion with a belief that this Mahommed had not died but lived concealed at Mount Radwa, near Mecca, guarded by a lion and a panther.
Of the many pretenders to this dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, `Obaidallah al-Mandi, who reigned 909-933.
In 1881 Mahommed Ahmed ibn Seyyid Abdullah, a Dongolese, proclaimed himself al-mandi and founded in the eastern Sudan the short-lived empire overthrown by an AngloEgyptian force at the battle of Omdurman in 1898.
Half a day's journey beyond Sura, on the Mesopotamian side of the river, are the extensive ruins of Haragla (Heraclea) and Rakka, once the capital of Harun al-Rashid (Nicephorium of Alexander; Callinicus of the Seleucids and Romans).
9 (4, 5), on the relation of Greek sacrifices and festivals to Kou'wviac and politics: al yap apxaiac Ovotac Kai vuvoSoa 4aivovrac yiyveo-Oat uera rhs Kaplrcov crvyKoptSas olov airapxai; cf.
Already under Charlemagne this development is noticeable; in his generous treatment of the Jews this Christian emperor stood in marked contrast to his contemporary the caliph Harun al-Rashid, who persecuted Jews and Christians with equal vigour.
The fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the Fedc al Constitution were ratified in 1870, and the state was formally readmitted into the Union on the 23rd of February of that year.
Martino al Piano, where remains still exist.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
And also another seuerall close for his portion of his common pasture, and also his porcion of his medowe in a seuerall close by itselfe, and al kept in seureall both in wynter and somer; and euery cottage shall haue his portion assigned hym accordynge to his rent, and than shall nat the ryche man ouerpresse the poore man with his cattell; and euery man may eate his oun close at his pleasure.
Be for come, the fourthe for his leyse, the fyfte for his commen pastures, and the sixte for his haye; and in wynter time there is but one occupied with come, and than hath the husbande other fyue to occupy tyll lente come, and that he hath his falowe felde, his ley felde, and his pasture felde al sommer.
Once upon a time there was a famous Arab whose name was Al Mansur.
Al Mansur loved poetry and was fond of hearing poets repeat their own verses.
So he employed a wise man whose name was Al Farra to be their teacher.
One day, after lesson hours, Al Farra rose to go out of the house.
When the caliph heard of this he sent for Al Farra and asked him, "Who is the most honored of men?"
Al Farra bowed low, but said nothing; and the caliph went on.
There was once a caliph of Cordova whose name was Al Mansour.
A year passed by and then the merchant appeared once more before Al Mansour.
Al Mansour noticed that the merchant was very sad and downcast.
"Tell us," said Al Mansour to the gardener, "tell us how you came to find that bag."
But, as I came to your palace this morning, I kept saying to myself, 'When our lord Al Mansour learns just how it was that I borrowed the gold, I have no doubt that in his kindness of heart he will forgive me the debt.'
"No," said Al Mansour, "it is for me to reward the man as he deserves."
We read about it in vivid detail, from around the year 900, in the writings of the Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi.
I asked, thrilled that al last there was news.
"This is like jailing Al Capone for tax evasion," Damian said.
The birth- Basses-Al rate markedly decreased during the 19th century; Basses-Py despite an increase of population between 1801 and Belfort, 1
A partisan of French methods, Moratin published in 1762 his Desengano al teatro espanol, a severe criticism of the national drama, particularly of the auto sacramental; and his protests were partly responsible for the prohibition of autos three years afterwards (June 1765).
At al-`01ä, south-east of Elath) to the priests and priestesses of the Arabian god Vadd (so especially Hommel, Anc. Heb.
Haroun-al-Raschid (Aaron the Just) was the greatest of all the caliphs of Bagdad.
The caliph, Al Mansur, lived nearly twelve hundred years ago.
There was a caliph of Persia whose name was Al Mamoun. He had two sons whom he wished to become honest and noble men.
One day the caliph, Haroun-al-Raschid, [Footnote: Haroun-al-Raschid (_pro._ ha roon' al rash'id).] made a great feast.