It has two important branches - at the south-west the Gulf of Aden, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-elMandeb; and at the north-west the Gulf of Oman, connecting with the Persian Gulf.
In the west and south the principal routes, other than those already mentioned, are from Yambu to Medina, from Jidda to Mecca, Hodeda to Sana, Aden to Sana, and from Mukalla to the Hadramut valley.
As to cost, one transatlantic cable repair cost 75,000; the repair of the Aden-Bombay cable, broken in a depth of 1900 fathoms, was effected with the expenditure of 176 miles of new cable, and after a lapse of 251 days, 103 being spent in actual work, which for the remainder of the time was interrupted by the monsoon; a repair of the Lisbon-Porthcurnow cable, broken in the Bay of Biscay in 2700 fathoms, eleven years after the cable was laid, took 215 days, with an expenditure of 300 miles of cable.
In Arabia progress has been slower, although the surveys carried out by Colonel Wahab in connexion with the boundary determined in the Aden hinterland added more exact geographical Arabia.
The temperatures at the head of the Persian Gulf approximate to those of northern India, and those of Aden to Madras.
At Aden the minimum is a few degrees below 70°, the maximum not much exceeding 90°.
The natives, already prone to the immorality which must infect a mixed population living under a hot sun, the immorality which still infects a place like Aden, were not improved by the addition of convicts.
T Iusil (1: 300,000, 1907) or of the Aden territory (1905) are among the more interesting.
Along the south shore of the Gulf of Aden westwards to Tajura Bay, and the east side skirts the Indian Ocean south-west for over r000 m.
The whole region is characterized by a remarkable degree of physical uniformity, and may be broadly described as a vast plateau of an average elevation of 3000 ft., bounded westwards by the Ethiopian and Galla highlands and northwards by an inner and an outer coast range, skirting the south side of the Gulf of Aden in its entire length from the Harrar uplands to Cape Guardafui.
The occupation of Aden by the British in 183 9 proved the starting-point in the opening up of the country, Aden being the chief port with which the Somali of the opposite coast traded.
The task of mapping the coast was largely undertaken by officers of the Indian navy, while the first explorers of the interior were officers of the Indian army quartered at Aden - Lieut.
The first person who reached the Indian Ocean, going south from the Gulf of Aden, was an American, Dr A.
British Somaliland The British Somaliland protectorate extends along the Gulf of Aden for about 400 m.
Thereupon Great Britain, partly to secure the route to the East via the Suez Canal, which the occupation of the country by another power might menace, occupied Zaila, Berbera and Bulhar, officials being sent from Aden to govern the ports.
From 1884 to 1898 the protectorate was attached for administrative purposes to Bombay, and was immediately dependent on Aden; in the last-named year it was transferred to the Foreign Office, and in 1905 passed under the control of the Colonial Office.
Monge, vice-consul of France at Zaila, had bought Ambabo, and shortly afterwards Henri Lambert, French consul at Aden, bought the town and territory of Obok.
The northern shore, along the Gulf of Aden, is backed by tablelands separated by the beds of mountain torrents - generally dry.
Alula, on the Gulf of Aden, is the chief town of the Mijertin Somali.
Encroachments on the hinterland of Aden brought about a dangerous state of tension between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its parallel in 1906 in similar trespasses by the Ottoman authorities on the Egyptian land frontier near Akaba.
A submarine cable from Durban goes to Zanzibar and Aden, whence there is communication with every quarter of the globe.
The temple is now in ruins, but the entire series of gorgeous pictures recording the expedition to "the balsam land of Punt," from its leaving to its returning to Thebes, still remains intact and undefaced.4 These are the only authenticated instances of the export of incense trees from the Somali country until Colonel Playfair, then political agent at Aden, in 1862-1864, collected and sent to Bombay the specimens from which Sir George Birdwood prepared his descriptions of them for the Linnean Society in 1868.
By the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, and E.
Except in the neighbourhood of Aden, no regular surveys exist, and professional work is limited to the marine surveys of the Indian government and the admiralty, which, while laying down the coast line with fair accuracy, give little or no topographical information inland.
South-western Arabia, from the twenty-first parallel down to the Gulf of Aden, including the Taif district of Hejaz, Asir and Yemen, South forms one province geographically.
Of Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.
The lowland strip or Tehama consists partly of a gravelly plain, the Khabt, covered sparsely with acacia and other desert shrubs and trees, and furnishing pasturage for large flocks of goats and camels; and partly of sterile wastes of sand like the Ramla, which extends on either side of Aden almost from the seashore to the foot of the hills.
The south coast is free from the shoals that imperil the navigation of the Red Sea, and in Aden it possesses the only safe natural harbour on the route between Suez and India.
Several isolated volcanic hills crop out on the shore line between Aden and the straits; the most remarkable are J.
Shamshan, 1700 ft., at the base of which Aden itself is built.
Mefat which enters the Gulf of Aden near Balhaf.
An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Of Aden, the summer heat is tempered by the monsoon winds, and the seasonal variation of temperature is less marked.
At Aden at the sea-level the mean temperature for the year is 83°; the highest observed temperature in 1904 was 97.3°, the lowest 67.4°.
In the Tehama occasional showers fall during the winter months; at Aden the average rainfall for the year is 2.97 in., but during 1904 only 0.5 in.
The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs, wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.
The berries are dried in the sun and sent down to Hodeda or Aden, where they are subjected to a process for separating the husk from the bean; the result is about 50% of cleaned berries, bun safe, which is exported, and a residue of husk or kishr, from which the Yemenis make their favourite beverage.
Manzoni estimated their number in Sana in 1878 at 1700 out of a total population of 20,000; at Aden they are a numerous and wealthy community, with agents in most of the towns of Yemen.
They wear a distinctive garb and are not allowed to carry arms or live in the same quarter as Moslems. Another foreign element of considerable strength in the coast towns of Muscat, Aden and Jidda, is the British Indian trading class; many families of Indian origin also have settled at Mecca, having originally come as pilgrims.
Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
The total value of the trade of Aden for 1904 amounted to over £6,000,000.
A number of coins have been brought to the British Museum from Aden, San'a and Ma'rib.
Wushth -4KW,t4 Abu Dhabl ° ' Masira I Gulf) el Had Aden And Vicinity English ?
Gulf of Aden H 6001 aakhmid dynasty fell, and the Persian Chosroes (Khosrau) II.
At the same time Yemen, which since the 9th century had been in the power of a number of small dynasties ruling in Zubed, San`a, Sa`da and Aden, passed into the hands of the Turk.
Aden was occupied by the British in 1839.
This delimitation places the whole of southern Arabia, east of this line, within the British sphere of influence, which thus includes the district surrounding Aden (q.v.), the Hadramut and Oman with its dependencies.
Hunter, Aden (aondon, 1877).
The Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Arica, or such caldron-depressions as the Gulfs of Genoa and Taranto, or rift-depressions like the Gulfs of Aden and Akaba.
31a level; thus fifteen years' observations at Aden show a maximum the first chart of the depths of the Atlantic between 52° N.
Between the Seychelles and Sokotra (0° - 9 ° N.) there are great stretches of the ocean floor forming an almost level expanse at a depth of 2800 fathoms. The Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Aden are also very uniform with depths of about 1900 fathoms, while the floor of the Bay of Bengal rises very gradually northwards and is 1000 fathoms deep close up to the Ganges Shelf.
- The territory comprises the peninsulas of Aden proper and Little Aden, a strip of mainland including the villages of Sheikh `Othman, 6 m.
The town of Aden and its port Tawahi, 4 m.
The harbour - known as Bandar Tawiya or Aden-West Bay - lies between the main and Little Aden peninsulas (Jebel Ihsan or Hasan); it extends 8 m.
The population of Aden proper in 1915 was 36,900 and of the whole settlement 46,000, of whom about 23,000 were Arabs and a large part of the remainder Somalis.
On March I 1921 the administration of Aden was transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office, which also exercises political influence, in varying degrees, over the confederations of tribes inhabiting the interior as far as the Yemen frontier and over certain tribes of the Hadhramaut.
£580,000), derived mainly from the Aden Port Trust Fund (£34,000), Aden Settlement Fund (£28,000), Local Supply Bills (£257,000), imperial and municipal receipts (£215,700), Post Office (£34,000), excise, customs and income tax.
A very large proportion represents simple transhipment; but Aden is also the centre of the exporting and importing business of the Red Sea commercial region made up of the Hejaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadhramaut, Eritrea, Abyssinia and British and French Somaliland.
Aden produces no foodstuffs.