In northern Asia are found other aborigines, such as the Ainus of Japan and the so-called hyperborean races (Chukchis, &c.), but no materials are at present forthcoming for their history.
The aborigines, who seemed to have reached a stage of civilization somewhat similar to that of the Aztecs, were conquered and exterminated or absorbed by Creeks about the middle of the 18th century.
Following Notes and Queries on Anthropology, published by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the study of the American aborigines divides itself into two parts: that relating to their biology, and that relating to their culture.
The aborigines of Australia furnish an example.
They probably are aborigines fundamentally, with a mixture of what are now called the Scythian tribes, which at a very early time overran India.
LATINUS, in Roman legend, king of the aborigines in Latium, and eponymous hero of the Latin race.
That they were not indigenous, but had displaced an earlier Melanesian or Papuan race, the true aborigines, is certain.
It is said that the aborigines had a breed of dogs which did not bark, and a small coney is also mentioned.
He urges that the similarities of some of the primitive races of India and Africa to the aborigines of Australia are indications that they were peopled from one common stock.
Ling Roth, Queensland Aborigines (Brisbane, 1897); Carl Lumholtz, Among Cannibals (1889); Walter E.
The great navigator and his crew, unacquainted with the character of the Australian aborigines, were not a little astonished that these natives took no notice of them or their proceedings.
The population of Formosa, according to a census in 1904, is estimated at 3,022,687, made up as follows: aborigines 104,334, Chinese 2,860,574 and Japanese 51,770.
The semi-civilized aborigines, who adopted the Chinese language, dress and customs, were called Pe-pa-hwan (Anglice Pepo-hoans), while their wilder brethren bear the name of Chin-hwan or" green savages," otherwise Sheng-fan or " wild savages."
A summary account is here given of the American aborigines, who are discussed in more detail under North American Indians.
Since the absorption of the aborigines in Israel Canaanite ideas had exercised great influence over the sanctuaries - so much so that the reforming prophets of the 8th century regarded the national religion as having become wholly heathenish; and this influence the ordinary prophets, whom a man like Micah regards as mere diviners, had certainly not escaped.
The aborigines are Papuans, but much mixed with Malayan and perhaps Polynesian elements.
Gillen, Notes on Manners and Customs of the Aborigines of the Macdonnell Ranges belonging to the Arunta Tribe; J.
For any aboriginal race inhabiting these countries, such important articles of diet as the duri-an, &c., could not fail to be among the first natural objects to receive a name, and thus we find primary terms in use among the Sakai and Semang, the aborigines of the Peninsula, to describe these fruits.
The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant I coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast - a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytheraea petechiana and Modiola teres being most abundant.
In the early part of the 19th century the island was chiefly known to Europeans on account of the wrecks which took place on its coasts, and the dangers that the crews had to run from the cannibal propensities of the aborigines, and the almost equally cruel tendencies of the Chinese.
The race is probably the result of a fusion of the Malay aborigines of Indo-China with the Aryan and Mongolian invaders of the country.
These peoplethe Ainuare usually spoken of as the aborigines of Japan.
The thought life of the American aborigines is expressed in their practical knowledge and their lore.
The religion of the American aborigines, so far as it can be made a subject of investigation, consisted (1) in what the tribes believed.
These mythological ideas and symbols of the American aborigines were woven in their textiles, painted on their robes and furniture, burned into their pottery, drawn in sand mosaics on deserts, and perpetuated in the only sculptures.
Only by way of the Hudson and Mohawk valleys, and round about the southern termination of the system were there easy routes to the interior of the country, and these were long closed by hostile aborigines and jealous French or Spanish colonists.
Keane, is that the Negritos, still found in the Philippines, are the true aborigines of Indo-China and western Malaysia, while the Melanesians, probably their kinsmen, were the earliest occupants of eastern Malaysia and western Polynesia.
Thus, animism is in some directions little developed, so far as we can see, among the Australian aborigines; but from those who know them best we learn that they believe in innumerable spirits and bush bogies, which wander, especially at night, and can be held at bay by means of fire; with this belief may be compared the ascription in European folk belief of prophylactic properties to iron.
In Tasmania the aborigines are extinct, the last pure-blooded native dying in 1876.
It is said to be possible to make out the remains of the cave-dwellings of the Ottadeni, the aborigines of the district.
At the census of 1901, 48,248 aborigines were enumerated, of whom 7434 were in New South Wales, 652 in Victoria, 27,123 in South Australia, and 6212 in Western Australia.
Roth, Ethnological Studies among the North-west-central Queensland Aborigines (London, 1897); Mrs K.
The population of India comprises at least three strata: firstly, uncivilized aborigines, such as the Kols and Santhals, and secondly, the Dravidians (Tamils, Kanarese, &c.), who perhaps represent the earliest northern invaders, and appear to have attained some degree of culture on their own account.
Even in the 19th century reports were spread of communities in which Indian blood was supposedly still plainly dominant; but the conclusion of the competent scientists who have investigated such rumours has been that at least absolutely nothing of the language and traditions of the aborigines has survived.
Pedro de Goes obtained a grant of the captaincy of Parahyba between those of Sao Vicente and Espirito Santo; but his means were too feeble to enable him to make head against the aborigines, and the colony was broken up after a painful struggle of seven years.
The affirmation that American aborigines believed in an all-pervading, omnipotent Spirit is entirely inconsistent with the very nature of the case.
The following represent a select list of works on the American aborigines: - H.
Some scholars suppose them to have been of Achaean race, but they were more probably the aborigines of Laconia who had been enslaved by the Achaeans before the Dorian conquest.
This should be supplemented by C. C. Jones's, Antiquities of the Southern Indians, particularly of the Georgia Tribes (New York, 1873), for the aborigines; W.
The Anglican Church in Canada has its Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, working in the North-West and in Japan; and in Australia it has a Board of Missions, working amongst the Australian aborigines and in New Guinea.
- The earliest attempt to evangelize the aborigines of Australia by a separate mission was that of the Church Missionary Society in 1825.
The legends represent the Latins of the historical period as a fusion of different races, Ligures, Veneti and Siculi among them; the story of the alliance of the Trojan settler Aeneas with the daughter of Latinus, king of the aborigines, and the consequent enmity of the Rutulian prince Turnus, well known to readers of Virgil, is thoroughly typical of the reflection of these distant ethnical phenomena in the surviving traditions.
Frazer, " The Beginnings of Religion and Totemism among the Australian Aborigines," Fortnightly Review, July 1905; N.
Despite its superior weapons and mode of warfare, the German east Baltic colony was constantly in danger of being overborne by the endless assaults of the dogged aborigines, whose hatred of the religion of the Cross as preached by the knights is very intelligible; and in 1218 Bishop Albert of Riga was driven to appeal for assistance to King Valdemar.
172) believed the Caunians to have been aborigines, the Carians having been originally called Leleges, who had been driven from the Aegean islands by the invading Greeks.
The abiding tradition of the Cretan aborigines, as preserved by Herodotus (vii.
The aborigines, Sheng fan, or " wild savages," deserved the appellation in some respects, for they lived by the chase and had little knowledge even of husbandry; while the Chinese themselves, uneducated labourers, acknowledged no right except that of might.
Salomon Reinach, guided by the analogy of similar practices among the aborigines of Australia, and noticing that these primitive pictures represent none but animals that formed the staple food of the age and place, and that they are usually found in the deepest and darkest recesses of the caves where they could only be drawn and seen by torchlight, has argued that they were not intended for artistic gratification (a late motive in human art), but were magical representations destined to influence and perhaps attract the hunter's quarry.
The aesthetic arts of the American aborigines cannot be studied apart from their languages, industries, social organizations, lore Fine art.
In larger or smaller numbers of cognate kindred, for shorter or longer periods of time, near or far from home, the aborigines developed their legislatures, courts, armies, secret societies and priesthoods.
The Melanesians then, must be regarded as the aborigines of Oceania.
The " nardoo " seed, on which the aborigines sometimes contrived to exist, is a creeping plant, growing plentifully in swamps and shallow pools, and belongs to the natural order of Marsileaceae.
Tubino, Los Aborigines ibericos o los Berberos en la peninsula (Madrid, 1876); A.
Indian corn, quinoa, mandioca, possibly the potato, cotton and various fruits, including the strawberry, were already known to the aborigines, but with the conqueror came wheat, barley, oats, flax, many kinds of vegetables, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, grapes, figs, oranges and lemons, together with alfalfa and new grasses for the plains.
The assertion by the Queensland authorities that there are 50,000 aborigines in that state is a crude estimate, and may be far wide of the truth.
The census of Western Australia included only those aborigines in the employment of the colonists; and as a large part of this, the greatest of the Australian states, is as yet unexplored, it may be presumed that the aborigines enumerated were very far short of the whole number of persons of that race in the state.
Among the aborigines the number of females to males was 114 to Ioo.
Nomadic aborigines have hardly been touched.
The Galapagos archipelago possesses a rare advantage from its isolated situation, and from the fact that its history has never been interfered with by any aborigines of the human race.
The true Thracians were part of that dark-complexioned, long-skulled race, which had been in the Balkan peninsula from the Stone Age, closely akin to the Pelasgians, the aborigines of Greece, to the Ligurians, the aborigines of Italy, and to the Iberians.