The title of giudice was abolished and a feudal marquisate substituted.
When that system was abolished, the social conditions of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia became more equal.
On the 24th an irade announced the restoration of the suspended constitution of 1875; next day, further irades abolished espionage and the censorship, and ordered the release of political prisoners.
The second division of the law abolished (Article 14) all restrictions upon the right of meeting of members of the clergy.
When the majority shall at length vote for the abolition of slavery, it will be because they are indifferent to slavery, or because there is but little slavery left to be abolished by their vote.
The pope abolished the order, however, as it seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived its usefulness.
Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes.
In Ireland imprisonment for debt was abolished by the Debtors Act (Ireland) 1872, and in Scotland by the Debtors (Scotland) Act 1880.
In France it was abolished in 1867, in Belgium in 1871, in Switzerland and Norway in 187 4, and in Italy in 1877.
In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.
Though the territorial authority of the papal see was practically abolished in 1870, the fact that Rome is the seat of the administrative centre of the vast organization of the church is not without significance to the nation.
In 1860 and 1861 the royal commissioners (even before the constitution of the new kingdom of Italy had been formally declared) issued decrees by which there were abolished(f) in Umbria, 197 monasteries and 102 convents with 1809 male and 2393 female associates, and 836 chapters or benefices; (2) in the Marches, 292 monasteries and 127 convents with 2950 male and 2728 female associates; (3) in the Neapolitan provinces, 747 monasteries and 275 convents with 8787 male and 7493 female associates.
The Cassa Ecclesiastica was abolished, and in its stead was instituted a Fondo pet Culto, or public worship fund.
Capital punishment was abolished in 1877, penal servitude for life being substituted.
These he abolished, and, taking the appointment into his own hands, gave German bishops to the see.
The result was the formation of an assembly at Modena which abolished feudal dues and customs, declared for manhood suffrage and established the Cispadane Republic (October 1796).
In 1872 the Banat regiments followed suit; and in 1873 the old military organization was abolished in the rest of the frontier.
The dual system of education, established in 1871, was abolished in 1890, and the administrative machinery consolidated under a minister of the Crown and an advisory board.
In 1801 and 1802 Napoleon took into his own hands the independence of both Catholic and Protestant Churches, the national synod was abolished, and all active religious propaganda was rigorously forbidden.
The Cour des Comptes, an ancient tribunal, was abolished in 1791, and reorganized by Napoleon I.
This conception of the Sabbath, however, necessarily underwent an important modification when the local sanctuaries were abolished under the "Deuteronomic" reform, and those sacrificial rites and feasts which in Hosea's time formed the essence of every act of religion were limited to the central altar, which most men could visit only at rare intervals.
The central court of justice at Malines was abolished, but the Grand Council was reorganized :and made thoroughly representative.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
Encouraged by this success, he even made the further suggestion that the remaining metallic portion of the circuit might perhaps some day be abolished and a system of wireless telegraphy established.'
The forced paper currency, instituted in 1866, was abolished in 1881, in which year were dissolved the Union of Banks of Issue created in 1874 to furnish to the state treasury a milliard of lire in notes, guaranteed collectively by the banks.
In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices in 1812, and where anti-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy was suppressed, the constitution abolished in 1816, and the island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan bureaucrats.
Charles Albert felt a certain interest in Liberal ideas and was always surrounded by young nobles of Carbonarist and anti-Austrian tendencies, and was therefore regarded with suspicion by his royal relatives, Metter nich, too, had an instinctive dislike for him, and proposed to exclude him from the succession by marrying one of the kings daughters to Francis of Modena, and getting the Salic law abolished so that the succession would pass to the duke and Austria would thus dominate Piedmont.
Leopold of Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally abolished it by order from Vienna; he also concluded atreatyof semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for granting fresh privileges to the Church.
While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.
On the 12th of April 1883 the forced currency was formally abolished by the resumption of treasury paynients in gold with funds obtained through a loan of 14,500,000 issued in London on the 5th of May 1882.
At the end of 1889 Crispi abolished the differential duties against French imports and returned to the general Italian tariff, but France declined to follow his lead and maintained her prohibitive dues.
In order to prevent such incidents in future, Peter the Great abolished the patriarchate altogether, and entrusted the administration of the Church to a synod entirely dependent on the government.
Their ancient liberties, he abolished the popular assembly, removed the great bell to Novgorod, installed his own boyars in the administration, transported 300 of the leading families to other localities, replaced them by 300 families from Moscow, and left in the town a strong garrison of his own troops.
The serfdom which had sprung up in Russia in the 16th century, and became consecrated by law in 1609, taking, however, nearly one hundred and fifty years to attain its full growth, was abolished in 1861.
These elect a head-man (starosta) and a collector of taxes, who was responsible, at least until the ukaz of October 3906, which abolished communal responsibility for the payment of taxes, for the repartition among individuals of the taxes imposed on the commune.
Abolished the election of justices of the peace, except in certain large towns and some outlying parts of the empire, and greatly restricted the right of trial by jury.
The edict of emancipation abolished this jurisdiction, and set up instead in each volost a court particular to the peasants (volostnye sud), of which the judges and jury, themselves peasants, were elected by the assembly of the volost (volostnye skhod) each year.
The office was revived by Napoleon I., was abolished in 1830, and again created by Napoleon III.; it existed till 1870.
And, as the old distinction survived in law and religion after all substantial privileges were abolished, so presently a new distinction arose of which law and religion knew nothing, but which became in practice nearly as marked and quite as important as the older one.
The series of revolutions already spoken of first made descent from former councillors a necessary qualification for election to the council; then election was abolished, and the council consisted of all descendants of its existing members who had reached the age of twenty-five.
And even in a democratic commonwealth the sentiment of nobility may exist, though all legal privilege has been abolished or has never existed.
We have seen that this was the case at Athens; it was largely the case in the democratic cantons of Switzerland; indeed the nobility of Rome itself, after the privileges of the patricians were abolished, rested on no other foundation.