The Arab city, the old or round city of Bagdad, was founded by the caliph Mansur of the Abbasid dynasty on the west side of the Tigris just north of the Isa canal in A.D.
917," in Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, 1897; Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901).
Damascus was taken by the Carmathians, and the name of the Abbasid caliph substituted for that of Moizz in public worship. IJasan al-A~am advanced from Damascus through Palestine to Egypt, encountering little resistance on the way; and in the autumn of 971 Jauhar found himself besieged in his new city.
Its time of greatest prosperity and importance was the period of the Abbasid caliphate, and Arabic geographers as late as A.D.
Tigris (1900); Guy Le Strange, " Description of Mesopotamia," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1895), and Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); J.
A great religious difference divided the Fatimite caliph of Cairo, the head of the Shiite sect, from the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad, who was the head of the Sunnites.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
Under substantially its present name, Akukafa, it is mentioned as a place of importance in connexion with the canals as late as the Abbasid caliphate.
With the rise of the Turkish body-guard under Mamun's successor, Mo`tassim, began the downfall of the Abbasid dynasty, and with it of the Abbasid capital, Bagdad.
The attempt was futile, Bagdad was besieged and taken, and from that time until their final downfall the Abbasid caliphs were mere puppets, while the real rulers were successively the Turkish guard, the Buyids and the Seljuks.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.
The ruling dynasty of Julanda in their capital Suhar lasted on till the Abbasid period.
With the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty, a new epoch in Arabian poetry began.
The growth of city life in the Abbasid capital led to the desire for a new form of story, differing from the old tales of desert life.
894), wrote on the Abbasid caliphs and was drawn on by Tabari.
946) wrote on the Abbasid caliphs, their viziers and court poets; Mas`udi (q.v.) composed various historical and geographical works (d.
It was in the early Abbasid period that the scientific works of Greece were translated into Arabic, 1 The chief Arabian geographical works have been edited by M.
When the seat of the Fatimite Empire was removed to Egypt, the Zirites, a house of the Sanhaja Berbers, ruled as their lieutenants at Mandia, and about 1050 Mo`izz the Zirite, in connexion with a religious movement against the Shiites, transferred his very nominal allegiance to the Abbasid caliphs.
BARMECIDES, more accurately Barmakids, a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs.
VIZIER, more correctly Vizir (Arabic Wazir), literally "burden-bearer" or "helper," originally the chief minister or representative of the Abbasid caliphs.
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs; after them the title was borne by the thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell before the Turks in 1258.
There were titular caliphs of Abbasid descent in Egypt from that date till 1517 when the last caliph was captured by Selim I.
The Seljuks inherited the traditions and at the same time the power of the Arabian caliphate, of which, when they made their appearance, only the shadow remained in the person of the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad.
It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.
His arms were successful both in Europe and Asia, and he was the first Ottoman sovereign to be styled "sultan," which title he induced the titular Abbasid caliph to confer on him.
Le Strange, Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905); V.
750) by Suleiman, the general who subjugated the country, and became the capital and the residence of the successive lieutenants of the Abbasid caliphs.
Like other provinces of the later Abbasid Caliphate its rulers were, during this period, able to establish quasi-independent dynasties, such being those of the Tulunids who ruled from 868 to 905, and the Ikshidis from 935969.
This dynasty lasted till 1171, when Egypt was again embodied in the Abbasid empire by Saladin, who, however, was himself the founder of a quasiindependent dynasty called the Ayyubites or Ayyubids, which lasted till 1252.
The Ayyubites were followed by the Mameluke dynasties, usually classified as Bal~ri from 1252-1382, and Burji from 1382-1517; these sovereigns were nominally under the suzerainty of Abbasid caliphs, who were in reality instruments of the Mameluke sultans, and resided at Cairo.
Abu Moslim, the founder of the Abbasid dynasty, proclaimed himself his avenger, and on that occasion adopted the black garments, which remained the distinctive colour of the dynasty.
This adventurer now went into Media (Jabal), where a great number of maulas and Shiites, even members of the reigning dynasty and of the Abbasid family, such as the future caliph Mansur, rejoined him.
This Mahommed, the father of the two first Abbasid caliphs, was a man of unusual ability and great ambition.
This Abu Salama seems to have had scruples against recognizing Abul-Abbas as the successor of his brother Ibrahim, and to have expected that the Mandi, whom he looked for from Medina, would not be slow in making his appearance, little thinking that an Abbasid would present himself as such.
Thus miserably perished the real founder of the Abbasid dynasty, the Sahib addaula, as he is commonly called, the Amin (trustee) of the House of the Prophet.
Ash`ath, the Abbasid general, entered Kairawan and regained possession of Africa in the name of the eastern caliph.
The official history of the Omayyads, as it has been handed down to us, is coloured by Abbasid feeling to such an extent that we can scarcely distinguish the true from the false.
Abbas, the vicegerent of Ali at Basra and ancestor of the future Abbasid dynasty, was in command.
The contentions between the Abbasid and Fatimite caliphs continued till 1072, when Palestine suffered its next invasion.
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D.
Aibek meanwhile immediately became involved in war with the Ayyubite Malik al-Ngsir, who was in possession of Syria, with whom the caliph induced him after some indecisive actions to make peace: he then successfully quelled a mutiny of Mamelukes, whom he compelled to take refuge with the last Abbasid caliph Mostasim in Bagdad and elsewhere.