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  • His last publication, which appeared in 1878, was on spherical harmonics (Beitreige zur Theorie der Kugelf unctionen) .
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  • Other philosophical works were: - Ueber den Ursprung der Sitten (1860 and 1867), Ueber die Ideen in der Geschichte (1865 and 1872); Zur Lehre von den Sinnestauschungen (1867); Ideale Fragen (1875 and 1885), Erziehung and Geschichte 0880; Unser Stand punkt (1881); Ueber die Reize des Spiels (1883).
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  • See P. von Kobbe, Geschichte and Landesbeschreibung des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Altona, 1836-1837); Duve, Mitteilungen zur Kunde der Staatsgeschichte Lauenburgs (Ratzeburg, 1852-1857), and the Archiv des Vereins far die Geschichte des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Ratzeburg, 1884 seq.).
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  • Goetz of Munich in a study entitled Die Quellen zur Geschichte des hl.
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  • Murbach, " Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Anatomie and Entwickelung der Nesselorgane der Hydroiden," Arch.
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  • In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
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  • His papers, over 200 in number, were collected by himself in Beitrdge zur chemischen Kenntniss der MineralkOrper (5 vols., 1 7951810) and Chemische Abhandlungen gemischten Inhalts (1815).
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  • Westergaard, Ober den altesten Zeitraum der indischen Geschichte, p. 87; Rhys Davids, Transactions of the Philological Society (1875), p. 70; Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, 7-9.
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  • 4 One great series of crust waves from east to west is crossed by a ' " Areal and mittlere Erhebung der Landflachen sowie der Erdkruste " in Gerland's Beitriige zur Geophysik, ii.
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  • 31-32; P. Suschkin, " Zur Morphologie des Vogelskelets.
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  • Furbringer, ' ` Zur Lehre von den Umbildungen der Nervenplexus," Morph.
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  • He at first devoted himself more especially to the study of the history of dogma, and in 1850 published his Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte, which was placed on the Index, Expurgatorius.
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  • In 1861 appeared Ober die Aufgabe der Naturphilosophie and ihr Verhdltnis zur Naturwissenschaft, which was, he declared, directed against the purely mechanical conception of the universe, and affirmed the necessity of a creative Power.
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  • Bathgen's Beitriige zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte (1888) is most useful, and contains valuable epigraphic material.
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  • Baudissin's Studien zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte (1876) is still valuable.
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  • Budde's Die Religion des Volkes Israel bis zur Verbannung, as well as Addis's recent Hebrew Religion (1906), is a most careful and scholarly compendium.
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  • He devoted himself ardently to oriental scholarship, and published Zur Urgeschichte der Armenier (1854) and Armenische Studien (1877).
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  • Reichling, "Beitrage zur Charakteristik des Alex.
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  • (1883); Bohmig, " Zur feineren Anatomic von Rhodope veranyi, Kolliker," Zeitschr.
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  • 57 sqq.; Lehmann Haupt in Beitrage zur alten Geschichte, 1905, v.
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  • Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans (Bruchsal, 1894); Plutarch, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab.
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  • Fischer's Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Livland appeared at Konigsberg, next year Beseke brought out at Mitau his Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel Kurlands, and in 1794 Siemssen's Handbuch of the birds of Mecklenburg was published at Rostock.
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  • In 1832 Kittlitz began to publish some Kup- fertafeln zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel, in which many new species are figured; but the work came to an end with its thirty-sixth plate in the following year.
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  • This was Berthold, who devoted a long chapter of his Beitrdge zur Anatomie, published at Gottingen in 1831, to a consideration of the subject.
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  • In the year last mentioned the greater part of these was separately issued under the title of Beitrrige zur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der Vogel.
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  • In 1888 there was published the huge monograph by Max Fiirbringer entitled Untersuchungen zur Morphologie and Systematik der Vogel.
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  • He edited the Bibliothek deutscher Geschichte, writing for this series, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Griindung des preussischen Konigtums (Stuttgart, 1887-94); and Deutsche Geschichte von der Auflosung des alten bis zur Griindung des neuen Reiches (Stuttgart, 1897-1905).
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  • Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
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  • C. Popular - Soziale Kernfragen; Moderne Probleme; Tagesfragen; Zwei Jahrzehnte deutscher Politik; Das Judentum in Gegenwart and Zukunft; Die Selbstzersetzung des Christentums; Gesammelte Studien; Der Spiritismus and Die Geisterhypothese des Spiritismus; Zur Zeitgeschichte.
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  • To this was appended a critical dissertation on the historians who had dealt with the period (Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschreiber), which, showing as it did how untrustworthy was much of traditional history, was to be for modern history as epoch-marking as the critical work of Niebuhr had been in ancient history.
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  • Ranke's other writings include Zur deutschen Geschichte.
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  • There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
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  • His work is usefully supplemented by the narrative (La Prise de Constantinople) of On the bibliography of the Second Crusade see Kugler, Studien zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Stuttgart, 1866).
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  • On the constitutional and 1 The bibliography of the Fourth Crusade is discussed in Klimke, Die Quellen zur Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzuges (Breslau, 1875).
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  • Blanckenhorn, Beitrcige zur Geologie Syriens (Cassel, 1890, &c.), and Grundzi ge der Geologie and physikalischen Geographie von Nord-Syrien (Berlin, 1891).
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  • This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.
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  • Archiv fiir Zoologie, ii.; Id., " The Genera of European Nemerteans critically revised," Notes from the Leyden Museum (1879); Id., " Zur Anatomie u.
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  • Gaffing in his Praktische Anleitung zur priifenden and zurlegenden Chemie (1802).
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  • (i.), 260-556; see also Kaerst, Studien zur Entwickelung d.
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  • His first works were in jurisprudence, Ober die Wirkung der Klagver- :dhrung bei Obligationen (Munich, 1855), and Studien zur Geschichte der germanischen Gottesurteile (Munich, 1857).
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  • Kiepert, Zur Topographie des alten Alexandria (1872).
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  • His principal works are - Die Philosophie in ihrem Ubergange zur Nichtphilosophie (1803); Versuch die scheinbare Magie des thierischen Magnetismus aus physiol.
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  • But of far more historical interest are the speeches and pamphlets connected with his socialistic agitation, of which the most important are - Ueber Verfassungswesen; Arbeiterprogramm; Offenes Antwortschreiben; Zur Arbeiterfrage; Arbeiterlesebuch; Herr BastiatSchulze von Delitzsch, oder Kapital and Arbeit.
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  • There is much that is striking and original in his history of marriage (Die ji dische Hochzeit in nachbiblischer Zeit, 1860), and of mourning customs (Die Leichenfeierlichkeiten im nachbiblischen Judenthum, 1861), his contributions to the sources of the Arabian Nights (Zur rabbinischen Sprach-und Sagenkunde, 1873), and his notes on rabbinic antiquities (Beitrage zur rabbinischen Sprachund Altertumskunde, 1893).
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  • For the Fragments see Zahn, Forschungen zur Gesch.
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  • 528-623; Sigmund Riezler, Die literarischen Widersacher der Piipste zur Zeit Ludwig des Baiers (Leipzig, 1874).
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  • Palmen's memoirs Zur Morphologie des Tracheensystems (Leipzig, 1877) and Cber paarige Ausfuhrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane bei Insekten (Helsingfors, 1884), contain important observations on may-flies.
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  • Graf, Die Griindung Alessandrias: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Lombardenbundes (1888).
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  • Other works deserving special mention are: Ermolov, Siberia as a Colony (3rd ed., 1894); Jarilow, Ein Beitrag zur Landwirtschaft in Sibirien (Leipzig, 1896).
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  • Voigt, "Beitrage zur Mythologie des Ares and Athena," in Leipziger Studien, iv.
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  • His chief works are: - Ideen zur Archdologie der Malerei, i.
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  • (1811) (no more published); Kunstmythologie (1811); Vorlesungen and Aufsatze zur Alterthumskunde (1817); Amalthea (1821-1825); Ideen zur Kunstmythologie (1826-1836).
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  • Diimmler in a MS. at Stuttgart, and was published by him in " Das Martyrologium Notkers and seine Verwandten in Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, xxv.
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  • Other similar short treatises are: Die Griindung Roms (1868); Daduchos (1875), on the language of the myths and mythical buildings; Die Wanderungen der Inachostochter Io (1880); Prolegomena zur Mythologie als Wissenschaft and Lexikon der Mythensprache (1891).
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  • The canons are printed in C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums (Tubingen, 1901), p. 46 f.; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, ed.
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  • Palacky replied in his Geschichte des Hussitenthumes rind Professor Leler (Prague, 1868) and Zur bohmischen Geschichtschreibung (Prague, 1871).
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  • Among his more important smaller historical works are: Wilydigung der alten bOhmischen Geschichtschreiber (Prague, 1830), dealing with authors of many of whose works were then inaccessible to Czech students; Archiv cesky (6 vols., Prague, 1840-1872); Urkundliche Beitr¢ge zur Geschichte des Hussitenkriegs (2 vols., Prague, 1872-1874); Documenta magistri Johannis Hus vitam, doctrinam, causam.
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  • Weierstrass, " Zur Theorie der aus n Haupteinheiten gebildeten complexen Grossen," Gotting.
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  • Borchardt, "Zur Baugeschichte des Amonstempel von Karnak," in Sethe's Untersuchungen zur Geschichte and Altertumskunde Aegyptens, v.
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  • Ephraemi Syri, &c., opera selecta, pp. 2 5 1 -33 6; and these have since been supplemented by Zettersteen's edition of a large number of his religious poems or metrical prayers (Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der religiosen Dichtung Balais, Leipzig, 1902).
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  • Hausser, Geschichte der Rheinischen Pfalz (Heidelberg, 18 45); Nebenius, Geschichte der Pfalz (Heidelberg, 1874); Giimbel, Geschichte der protestantischen Kirche der Pfalz (Kaiserslautern, 1885); the Regesten cer Pfalzgrafen am Rhein,' 1214-1508, edited by Koch and Wille (Innsbruck, 1894); and Wild, Bilderatlas zur badischpfalzischen Geschichte (Heidelberg, 1904).
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  • From 1878 till his death Curtius was general editor of the Leipziger Studien zur classischen Philologie.
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  • In his last work, Zur Kritik der neuesten Sprachforschung (1885), he attacks the views of the "new" school of philology.
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  • Opposition to France was the inspiring principle of the Historisches Journal founded by him in 1799-1800, which once more held up English institutions as the model, and became in Germany the mouthpiece of British policy towards the revolutionary aggressions of the French republic. In 1801 he ceased the publication of the Journal, because he disliked the regularity of journalism, and issued instead, under the title Beitrdge zur Geschichte, &c., a series of essays on contemporary politics.
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  • In 1831 appeared Briefe aus Paris und Frankreich im Jahre 1830 and Briefe aus Paris zur Erlauterung der Geschichte des 16ten und 17ten Jahrhunderts.
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  • Among his later books may be mentioned Antiquarische Briefe (1851), Historisch-politische Briefe fiber die geselligen Verhdltnisse der Menschen (1860), Lebenserinnerungen und Briefwechsel (i 861) and Handbuch zur Geschichte der Literatur (1864-66).
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  • He published a Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1854, smaller textbooks of organic and inorganic chemistry in 1877-1883, and Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der theoretischen Chemie in 1881.
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  • Stern, Zur Biographie des Papstes Urbans II.
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  • See Lehmann-Haupt, Beitrdge zur alten Geschichte (Klio), Bd.
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  • On the other hand, some interpolations took place, one in the 1 For details see the introduction to Noldeke's translation of Tabari's Geschichte der Perser and Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (aeiden, 1879).
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  • Krauss, "Zur Geschichte der Chazaren," in Revue orientale pour les etudes Ourals-altaiques (1900).
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  • Lechler's other works include Geschichte der Presbyterialand Synodal-verfassung (1854), Urkundenfunde zur Geschichte des christl.
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  • - Reland, Decas exercitationum philologicarum de vera pronuntiatione nominis Jehova, 1707; Reinke, " Philologisch-historische Abhandlung fiber den Gottesnamen Jehova," in Beitrc ge zur Erklcirung des Alten Testaments, III.
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  • (1855); Baudissin, " Der Ursprung des Gottesnamens 'Iaw," in Studien zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte, I.
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  • (1875); Haube, Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Albinovanus Pedo (1880).
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  • While much that Herder produced after settling in Weimar has little value, he wrote also some of his best works, among others his collection of popular poetry on which he had been engaged for many years, Stimmen der Volker in Liedern (1778-1779); his translation of the Spanish romances of the Cid (1805); his celebrated work on Hebrew poetry, Vom Geist der hebrdischen Poesie (1782-1783); and his opus magnum, the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784-1791).
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  • Herder's masterpiece, the Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, has the ambitious aim of explaining the whole of human development in close connexion with the nature of man's physical environment.
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  • See Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, Bande ix.
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  • Pallas also edited and contributed to Neue nordische Beitrage zur physikal schen Erdand Volkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte, and Oekonomie (1781-1796), published Illustrationes plantarum imperfecte vel nondum cognitarum (Leipzig, 1803), and con tributed to Buffon's Natural History a paper on the formation of mountains.
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  • Among current serials may be mentioned Archives de psychologie de la Suisse romande (1901) edited by Flournoy and Claparede; Jahresverzeichnis der schweizerischen Universitatsschriften (1897-1898); Untersuchungen zur neueren Sprachand Literaturgeschichte (1903); Zwingliana: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte Zwingli and der Reformation (1897).
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  • In 1787 he issued an important political tract, Zur Darstellung des Furstenbundes.
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  • Prasek, Hekataios als Herodots Quelle zur Geschichte Vorderasiens.
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  • See Vincent Smith, Early History of India (1908); Hoernle and Stark, History of India (1905); Rapson, Indian Coins (1898); Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings in India (1886); Franke, Beitrage aus Chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker und.
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  • The most important works of this period of his life are Entwurf der nothwendigen Vernunftwahrheiten (1745), and Weg zur Gewissheit and Zuverlassigkeit der menschlichen Erkenntniss (1747).
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  • Stein, Kulmbach and die Plassenburg in alter and newer Zeit (Kulmbach, 1903); Huther, Kulmbach and Umgebung (Kulmbach, 1886); and C. Meyer, Quellen zur Geschichte der Stadt Kulmbach (Munich, 1895).
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  • See Hubbe, Zur topographischen Entwickelung der Stadt Parchim (Parchim, 1899); and Weltzien, Zur Geschichte Parchims (Parchim, 1903).
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  • During this period he published anonymously two remarkable political works, Zuriickforderung der Denkfreiheit von den Fiirsten Europas and Beitrdge zur Berichtigung der Urtheile des Publicums fiber die franzOsische Revolution.
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  • Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pasha im Herzen von Afrika (Berlin, 1894); Brix Foerster, Deutsch-Ostafrika; Geographie and Geschichte (Leipzig, 1890); Oscar Baumann, InDeutsch-Ostafrikawahrenddes Aufstands (Vienna, 1890), Usambara and seine Nachbargebiete (Berlin, 1891), and Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle (Berlin, 1894).
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  • From 1838 to 1863 he lived in Breslau, where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and wrote some of his most important works, including Lehrand Lesebuch zur Sprache der Mischna (1845), Studien from Maimonides (1850), translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), and Urschrift and Obersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhangigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (1857).
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  • 1899) after his death by his brother Alfred Geiger, who also published a number of his scattered papers as Zur Entwickelung der Menschheit (1871, 2nd ed.
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  • In 1772 appeared the most popular of his books, IV orterbuch des Neuen Testamentes zur Erkldrung der christlichen Lehre (6th ed., 1805).
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  • In the same year he published his Anleitung zur Religion iiberhaupt and zum Allgemeinen des Christenthums besonders; fiir die Jugend hiherer and gebildeter Stdnde aller Religionsparteien.
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  • Meyer, Forschungen zur alten Geschichte, i.
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  • Droysen, Preussische Staatsschriften, Politische Correspondent Friedrichs des Grossen, and Urkunden and Actenstiicke zur Geschichte des Kurfiirsten Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg.
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  • To the period of his political activity belong Zur Geschichte der deutschen Reichsversammlung in Frankfurt (1849); Heinrich von Gagern (1850), in the series of Manner der Gegenwart; and the anonymous Vier Monate auswartiger Politik (1851).
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  • Abhandlungen zur preussischen Geschichte (1876); followed after his death by Abhandlungen aus der griechischen Geschichte and Abhandlungen aus der neueren Geschichte (1887) .
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  • Of modern books may be mentioned Schmidt, Histoire des Cathares; Hahn, Geschichte der neumanichaischen Ketzer; Dieckhoff, Die Waldenser im Mittelalter; Preger, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Waldensier; Cantu, Gli Eretici in Italia; Comba, Storia della Riforma in Italia, and Histoire des Vaudois d'Italie; Tocco, L'Eresia nel medio evo; Montet, Histoire litteraire des Vaudois; Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages.
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  • Dobner, Studien zur Hildesheimischen Geschichte (Hildesheim, 1901); Lachner, Die Holzarchitektur Hildesheims (Hildesheim, 1882); Seifart, Sagen, Mcirchen, Schweinke and Gebrduche aus Stadt and Stift Hildesheims (Hildesheim, 1889).
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  • He was the possessor of a clear and graceful, if somewhat florid, style, which showed to special advantage in his numerous obituary notices or encomiums (collected and published in three volumes Zur Erinnerung an vorangegangene Freunde, 1888).
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  • Meyer, Forschungen zur alten Geschichte (Halle, 1899), ii.
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  • 72, as well as a work on the Pauline epistles, Zur Kritik Paulinischer Briefe (1870), on the Moabite Stone, Die Inschrift des Mescha (1870), and on Assyrian, Sprache u.
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  • - The works of Hedenstrbm, Ferdinand von Wrangell, and Anjou, Bunge and Toll in Beitrdge zur Kenntniss des russischen Reichs, ate Folge, Bd.
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  • In conjunction with other scholars Waitz took a leading part in the publication of the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte (Munich, 1862 seq.), and in the Nordalbingische Studien, published in the Proceedings of the Schleswig-Holstein Historical Society (Kiel, 1844-1851).
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  • He published Entwicklungsgeschichte der Chemie von Lavoisier bis zur Gegenwart (1868) and other works on chemistry, collaborated in a Handworterbuch der Chemie (13 vols., 1882-96), and wrote a volume of reminiscences, Lebenserinnerungen (1912).
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  • Papsttum zur Zeit des Hohenstaufen Friedrich II.
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  • In 1845 appeared his Zur Geschichte and Literatur, in which he threw light on the literary and social history of the Jews.
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  • Recent investigations are described in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland, and in the reports of the German Kommission zur Untersuchung der Deutschen Meere (published at Kiel).
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  • Of his very numerous literary productions the following may be mentioned: Beitrage zur Kenntnis der nati rlichen and politischen Verfassung des oettingischen Vaterlandes (1786); Ein Votum fiber den Wucher von einem Manne sine voto (1791); Historische Entwicklung der deutschen Steuerverfassungen (1793); Historische Priifung des vermeintlichen Alters der deutschen Landstande (1796); Neuere Geschichte des Fi rstentums Bayreuth (1486-1603) (1798-1811); Tabellen fiber Flacheninhalt &c. and bevorstehende Verluste der deutschen Reichsstande.
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  • Voigt, "Beitrage zur Mythologie des Ares and Athena" in Leipziger Studien, iv.
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  • - Richter, Die evangelischen Kirl henordnungen des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts (Weimar, 1846); Sehling, Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen des 'Olen Jahrhinderts (Leipzig, 1902, &c.); Richter, Lehrbuch des katholischen and evangelischen Kirchenrechts (8th ed., Leipzig, 1886); Hundeshagen, Beitrage zur Kirchenverfassungsgeschichte and Kirchenpolitik inbesondere des Protestantismus, i.
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  • Wolfgang Michael's Englands Stellung zur ersten Teilung Polens (Hamburg, 1890) is of especial interest to Englishmen.
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  • See Nettesheim, Geschichte der Stadt and des Amtes Geldern (Crefeld, 1863); Henrichs, Beitrage zur innern Geschichte der Stadt Geldern (Geldern, 1893); and Real, Chronik der Stadt and Umgegend von Geldern (Geldern, 1897).
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  • This result having been attained, he passed the rest of his days in retirement, emerging sometimes from his retreat to give addresses on theological questions, and also writing, in conjunction with his friend Reusch, his last book, Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der romisch-katholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert mit Beitragen zur Geschichte and Charakteristik des Jesuitenordens (Nordlingen, 188 9), in which he deals with the moral theology of St Alfonso de' Liguori.
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  • His peculiar qualities were conspicuous in his early and exceedingly influential work - the Beitrcige zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament (1806-1807).
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  • For that, when it came, much was due to the work of Graf (a pupil of Reuss, whose Geschichtliche Bucher des Alten Testaments appeared in 1866); to the Dutch scholar Kuenen, who, starting from the earlier criticism, came over to the new, made it the basis of his Religion of Israel (1869-1870), a masterly work and a model of sound method, and continued to support it by a long series of critical essays in the Theologisch Tijdschrift; and to Wellhausen, who displayed an unrivalled combination of grasp of details and power of historical construction: his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels was published in 1878 and translated into English in 1885; the history itself, Israelitische u.
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  • Students of Tallquist's Maklu series of incantation or of the surpu series edited by Zimmern (in his Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Babylonischen Religion) will recollect the images over which the priest sorcerer recites his formulae.
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  • Weizsacker's other works include Zur Kritik des Barnabasbriefs (1863) and Ferdinand Christian Baur (1892).
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  • 2 A careful examination of the history of the method is given by Scheibel in his Einleitung zur mathematischen Bucherkenntniss, Stuck vii.
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  • Reference should also be made to Hoppe's Tafeln zur dreissigstelligen logarithmischen Rechnung (Leipzig, 1876), which give in a somewhat modified form a table of the hyperbolic logarithm of + Irn.
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  • Anz, " Zur Frage nach dem Ursprung des Gnosticismus," Texte u.
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  • Kugler, Analekten zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzugs (Tubingen, 1878, 1883).
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  • Without resigning his official position he lectured for a short time at Stuttgart, and 1 The reviews of current philosophical literature were afterwards collected, and edited under the title "Abhandlungen zur Erlauterung des Idealismus der Wissenschaftslehre" in 'Schelling's Philos.
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  • Franke, Beitrage aus chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker and Skythen (1904); P. Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings in India (1886); and various articles by Vincent Smith, Fleet, Cunningham, A Stein, Sylvain Levi and others in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Indian Antiquary, Zeitsch.
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  • Senn, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Flagellaten des Rattenblutes," op. cit.
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  • See Apfelstedt, Heimatskunde des Furstentums SchwarzburgSondershausen (Sondersh., 1854-1857); Irmisch, Beitrage zur schwarzburgischen Heimatskunde (Sondersh., 1905-1906).
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  • Religionssystem (1831; in this work Manichaean speculation is exhibited from a speculative standpoint); Fliigel, Mani (1862; a very careful investigation on the basis of the Fihrist); Kessler, Untersuchung zur Genesis des manich.
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  • Maionica, Aquileia zur Romerzeit (Gorz, 1881), Fundkarte von Aquileia (Gorz, 1893), "Inschriften in Grado" (Roman inscriptions removed thither from Aquileia) in Jahreshefte des Osterr.
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  • Concils gefiihrt (1871); Zur Verteidigung meines Tagebuchs (1872); Beitrdge zur Kirchengeschichte des 18ten Jahrh.
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  • In the field of biblical criticism he wrote a Geschichte des Alten Bundes (1848-1855), Zur Theologie der Psalmen (1865) and Erkldrung des Briefs an die Hebrder (1869).
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  • However, he lost the battle that ensued, and the ' Comp. Sachau, "Zur Geschichte and Chronologie von Khwarizm," in Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Acad., lxxiv.
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  • Sethe, "Menes and die Grundung von Memphis," in his Untersuchungen zur Geschichte and Alterthumskunde Aegyptens, iii.
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  • Daub's Die dogmatische Theologie jetziger Zeit oder die Selbstsucht in der Wissenschaft des Glaubens (1833), and Vorlesungen ilber die Prolegomena zur Dogmatik (1839), are Hegelian in principle and obscure in language.
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  • Fechner first confused physics and metaphysics in psychophysics, and next proceeded to confuse them again in his work on evolution (Einige Ideen zur SchOpfungs and Entwicklungs-geschichte der Organismen, 1873).
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  • He therefore confined his attention to several practical arts and trades; and to these labours we owe his Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Erfindungen (1780-1805), translated into English as the History of Inventions - a work in which he relates the origin, history and recent condition of the various machines, utensils, &c., employed in trade and for domestic purposes.
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  • Other important works of Beckmann are Entwurf einer allgemeinen Technologie (1806); Anleitung zur Handelswissenschaft (1789); Vorbereitung zur Warenkunde (1795-1800); Beitrage zur Okonomie, Technologie, Polizeiand Kameralwissenschaft (1777-1791).
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  • Zeller, "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Stoikers Panatius" in Cornmentationes philologae in honorem Th.
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  • Carefully indexed source materials in the original languages are given by C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums und des riimischen Katholizismus (2nd enlarged ed., Tubingen, 1901); many fragments in translation under " Papacy " in History for Ready Reference, ed.
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  • (Leipzig, 1894); Ernst Bernheim, Zur Geschichte des Wormser Konkordates (Gottingen, 1878); Martin Rule, The Life and Times of St Anselm (2 vols., London, 1883); and Klemm, Der Investiturstreit unter Heinrich I.
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  • Regling, "Zur historischen Geographie des mesopotamischen Parallelograms" (Sarug district), in Klio, I.
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  • Bertrand, Un Critique d'art dans l'antiquite: Philostrate et son ecole (1882); Bergk, "Die Philostrate" in Rini' Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Philosophic and Astronomic (1883); Schmid, Atticismus iv.
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  • His chief scientific and philosophical works are: Beitrdge zur innern Naturgeschichte der Erde (1801); Grundzilge der.
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  • Sometimes the two cavities are restricted to the two ends of the spore, the polaribilocular type and the two loculi may be united From Beitrcge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik.
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  • Baranetzky, " Beitrge zur Kenntnis des selbststandigen Lebens der Flechtengonidien," Prings.
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  • Faber, I Zur Hydrographie des Maingebiets (Munich, 1895), and Lill, Mainthal, Main and Mainschiffahrt (Berlin, 1904).
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  • See Vigelius, Denkwurdigkeiten von Hersfeld (Hersfeld, 1888); Demme, Nachrichten and Urkunden zur Chronik von Hersfeld (Hersfeld, 1891-1901), and P. Hafner, Die Reichsabtei Hersfeld bis zur Mitte des 13ten Jahrhunderts (Hersfeld, 1889).
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  • In the same year appeared his first work on the Crusades, Quellenbeitrage zur Geschichte der Kreuzzage, and a series of monographs on the same subject culminated in 1883 in the notable Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzzuge.
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  • Among Raiffeisen's writings are, Die Darlehnskassenvereine als Mittel zur Abhilfe (Neuwied, 1866; new ed., 1887); Anleitung zur Geschditsand Buchfiihrung ldndlichen Sparand Darlehnskassenvereine (new ed., 1896); and Kurze Anleitung zur Griindung von Darlehnskassenvereinen (new ed., 1893).
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  • Ficker, Zur Geschichte des Lombardenbundes (Vienna, 1868).
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  • He translated three volumes of Charles Rollin's Histoire ancienne, wrote several plays - Der Misogyn, Der Freigeist, Die Juden- and in association with Mylius, began the Beitrdge zur Historre and Aufnahme des Theaters (1750), a periodical - which soon came to an end - for the discussion of matters connected with the drama.
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  • The results of these researches he embodied in a series of volumes, Zur Geschichte and Literatur, the first being issued in 177 3, the last in the year of his death.
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  • The manuscript of this work was, after the author's death, entrusted by his daughter to Lessing, who published extracts from it in his Zur Geschichte and Literatur in 1774-1778.
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  • 63 (1905); Dangeard, "Sur le Pyronema confluens," Le Botaniste, 9 serie (1903) (and numerous papers in same journal earlier and later); Ramlow, "Zur Entwick.
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  • (1882), reprinted in Zur Erinnerung an vorangegangene Freunde (1888).
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  • Crusius, Beitrage zur griechischen Mythologie and Religionsgeschichte (Leipzig, 1886).
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  • Gunther, Geschichte der Stadt Koblenz (Cobl., 1815); and Bar, Urkunden and Akten zur Geschichte der Verfassung and Verwaltung der Stadt Koblenz bis zum Jahre z50o (Bonn, 1898).
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  • For the archdiocese and electorate of Cologne see Binterim and Mooren, Die Erzdiozese Koln bis zur franzosischen Staatsumweilzung, new ed.
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  • The most important of his works are: - Beitrage zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament (2 vols., 1806-1807); Kommentar fiber die Psalmen (181 I), which has passed through several editions, and is still regarded as of high authority; Lehrbuch der hebraisch jiidischen Archaologie (1814); Ober Religion and Theologie (1815); a work of great importance as showing its author's general theological position; Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmatik (1813-1816); Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung in die Bibel (1817); Christliche Sittenlehre (1819-1821); Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1826); Religion, ihr Wesen, ihre Erscheinungsform, and ihr Einfluss auf das Leben (1827); Das Wesen des christlichen Glaubens (1846); and Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Neuen Testament (1836-1848).
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  • According to the statistics furnished in the Vierteljahreshefte zur Statistik des deutschen Reiches for 9o5, the receipts amounted to upwards of Io,000,000 for 1903, and the expenditure to somewhat less than this sum.
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  • Also articles by the above and others, chiefly in Zeitschrift fr Ethnologie (Berlin); Archin fr Anthropotogie (Brunswick); Globus (Brunswick); Westdeutsche Zeitschrift (Trier); Schriften der physikalischkonomischen Gesellschaft (Konigsberg); Nachrichten ber deutsche Altertumskunde (Berlin); Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fr Ant hropologie, &c.; Beitrdge zur Ant hropologie Bayerns (Munich); and Zeitschrift fr deutsches Altertum (Berlin).
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  • Hausser, Deutsche Geschichte corn Tode Friedrichs des Grossen bis zur Grundung des Deutschen Bundes (Berlin, I 8611863), and K.T.
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  • Among more general works are Brequigny, Histoire des revolutions de Genes 'usqu'en 1748; Serra, La Storia dell' antica Liguria e di Genova (Turin, 1834) Varesi, Storia della repubblica di Genova sino al 1814 (Genoa, 18 351839); Canale, Storia dei Genovesi (Genoa, 1844-1854), Nuova istoria della repubblica di Genova (Florence, 1858), and Storia della rep. di Genova dall' anno 1528 al 1550 (Genoa, 1874); Blumenthal, Zur Verfassungsand Verwaltungsgeschichte Genua's im 12ten Jahrhundert (Kalbe an der Saalc, 1872); Mallison, Studies from Genoese History (London, 1875).
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  • See Reinhold, Chronik der Stadt Rostock (Rostock, 1836); Krabbe, Die Universitat Rostock im 15 and 16 Jahrhundert (2 vols., Rostock, 1854), Koppmann, Geschichte der Stadt Rostock (Rostock, 1887); Volckmann, Fiihrer durch Rostock (3rd ed., 1896); the Geschichtsquellen der Stadt Rostock (Rostock, 1885); and the Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Stadt Rostock (Rostock, 1890).
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  • See for geology Carl von Zittel, Beitrage zur Geologie and Palaontologie der libyschen Whste (Cassel, 1883); Reports of the Geological Survey of Egypt (Cairo, 1900, at seq.).
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  • The articles dealing with Persia were republished in a German volume, Aufseitze zur persischen Geschichte (Leipzig, 1887).
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  • Among his best-known works are: Das Leben Mohammeds (1863); Beitreige zur Kenntnis der Poesie der alten Araber (1864); Die alttestamentliche Literatur (1868); Untersuchungen zur Kritik des Alten Testaments (1869); Zur Grammatik des klassischen Arabisch (1896); Fiinf Mo`allagat, iibersetzt and erkleirt (1899-1901); and Beitreige zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft (1904).
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  • See Wiarda, Bruchstucke zur Geschichte der Stadt Aurich (Emden, 1835).
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  • Huber, Die Waldstatte bis zur festen Begriindung ihrer Eidgenossenschaft, mit einem Anhange fiber die geschichtliche Stellung des Wilh.
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  • He sees in the coming again of Nero, whose figure he endows with 1 See Bousset, Kommentar zur Offenbarung Johannis, on these passages.
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  • Zahn, Zeitschrift fiir kirchliche Wissenschaft and kirchliches Leben (1886), p. 337 &c.; Bousset, Kritisch-exegetisches Kommentar zur Offenbarung Johannis, cap. 17, and the article "Sibyllen" in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie fiir Theologie and Kirche (3rd ed.), xviii.
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  • For the later history of the legend, see Bousset, Antichrist, where will be found a more detailed discussion of nearly all the sources named; Bousset, "Beitrage zur Geschichte der Eschatologie," in Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte, xx.
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  • His philosophical works include annotations to Garve's translation of the Politics of Aristotle (1799-1800), and a large share in the Beitrage zur Geschichte der Philosophie (published in twelve parts between 1791 and 1799), in which he collaborated with Forberg, Reinhold and Niethammer.
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  • Under the pseudonym "Edelwald Justus" he published several collections of popular tales - Bunte Blatter (1795); Kleine Schriften zur Unterhaltung (1798); Nebenstunden (1799).
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  • See also Emil Silberstein, Conrad Pellicanus; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Studiums der hebr.
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  • Compare Schultze, Zur Geschichte der Litteratur g iber das Decret Gratians (1870), Die Glosse zum Decret Gratians (1872), and Geschichte der Quellen and Litteratur des kanonischen Rechts (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1875).
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  • See Wimmer, Sammelblatter zur Geschichte der Stadt Straubing (Straubing, 1882-1884), and Ortner, Straubing in seiner Vergangenheit and Gegenwart (Straubing, 1902).
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  • In 1790 he published his important Versuch, die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erkleiren, which was an even more fundamental achievement for the new science of comparative morphology than his discovery some six years earlier of the existence of a formation in the human jaw-bone analogous to the intermaxillary bone in apes; and in 1791 and 1792 appeared two parts of his Beitrage zur Optik.
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  • His principal theological work was the Fortbildung des Christenthums zur Weltreligion, in 4 volumes (Leipzig, 1833-1840).
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  • He had been brought to the notice of the political world by some articles he wrote from 1861 to 1864, which were afterwards published under the title Zur Verfassungsgeschichte Preussens (Leipzig, 1874), and in 1865 he was elected member for one of the divisions of Berlin in the Prussian parliament.
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  • Among Lasker's writings may be mentioned: Zur Geschichte der parlamentarischen Entwickelung Preussens (Leipzig, 1873), Die Zukunft des Deutschen Reichs (Leipzig, 1877) and Wege and Ziele der xvi.
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  • Among the other works of Griesbach (which are comparatively unimportant) may be mentioned his university thesis De codicibus quatuor evangelistarum Origenianis (Halle, 1771) and a work upon systematic theology (Anleitung zur Kenntniss der popularen Dogmatik, Jena, 1779).
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  • See Staudenraus, Chronik der Stadt Landshut, (Landshut 1832); Wiesend, Topographische Geschichte von Landshut (Landshut, 1858); Rosenthal, Zur Rechtsgeschichte der Steidle Landshut and Straubing (Wiirzberg, 1883); Kalcher, Fiihrer durch Landshut (Landshut, 1887); Haack, Die gotische Architektur and Plastik der Stadt Landshut (Munich, 1894); and Geschichte der Stadt Landshut (Landshut, 1835).
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  • See Grulich and Barger, Denkwiirdigkeiten der alts¢chsischen Residenz Torgau aus der Zeit der Reformation (Torgau, 1855); Knabe, Geschichte der Stadt Torgau bis zur Reformation (Torgau, 1880); and the publications of the Altertumverein zu Torgau (Torgau, 1884 sqq.).
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  • See Noldeke, Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Poesie der alien Araber (1864), pp. 89 seq.
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