The Valley, including the drainage basin of Lake Zumpango, has an area of 1219 sq.
The general elevation of the Valley is about 7500 ft., that of Lake Zumpango being 7493 ft., and of Lake Chalco 7480 ft.
The earliest effort to correct this evil was by the Dutch engineer Maartens (Span., Martinez), who planned a deep cutting through Nochistongo Hill, north of the city, to carry away the overflow of Lake Zumpango (7493 ft.
below the mean level of the city and running north to Zumpango and thence eastward into a tunnel over 6 m.
Of the former, the best known are the lakes of the Valley of Mexico - Texcoco, Chalco, Xochimilco, Zumpango, Xaltocan and San Cristobal - which are probably the remains of a lake once occupying the whole valley.
of the long Aztec migration seem historical, and the map of Mexico still shows the names of several settlements recorded in the curious migration map, published by Gemelli Careri (Giro deli mondo, Venice, 1728) and commented on by Humboldt; among, these local names are Tzompanco, " place of skulls," now Zumpango in the north of the Mexican valley, and Chapultepec,.
It had been protected under the native kings by a system of dikes, which were added to under the earlier viceroys, but serious inundations in 1553 and 1580 flooded the city, and the latter suggested the relief of the highest lake, that of Zumpango, by a tunnel carrying its chief affluent into a tributary of the Panuco, and so to the Atlantic. This, however, was not then undertaken, and when mooted again in 1603 was opposed as certain to involve a heavy sacrifice of Indian life.
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