MONNIKENDAM, a fishing village of Holland, in the province of North Holland, on an inlet of the Zuider Zee known as the Gouw Zee, 12 m.
from the mainland, and stretching from the Zuider Zee E.
HARDERWYK, a seaport in the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the shores of the Zuider Zee, 17 m.
As a seaport its trade is now confined exclusively to the Zuider Zee.
There is evidence that, towards the close of the mediaeval period, great storms and tidal inundations occurred on the shores of the North Sea and Baltic, and in the course of these floods, culminating in 1297, the Zuider Zee was formed from a lake that existed in its neighbourhood, by the breaking down of dykes.
The smaller branch to the right retains the name of Rhine and sends off another arm, called the Yssel, to the Zuider Zee.
The towns of the League, stretching from Thorn and Krakow on the East to the towns of the Zuider Zee on the West, and from Wisby and Reval in the North to GÃ¶ttingen in the South, were arranged in groups, following in the main the territorial divisions.
ZUIDER ZEE, or Zuyder Zee, a land-locked inlet on the coast of Holland, bounded N.
In the early centuries of the Christian era the Zuider (i.e.
In 1170 the land between Stavoren, Texel, and Medemblik was washed away, and a century later the Zuider Zee was formed.
The mean depth of the Zuider Zee is 11.48 ft.; depth in the southern basin of the former lake, 19 ft.; at Val van Urk (deep water to the west of the island of Urk), 142 ft.
to Lemmer (Friesland), these lines will connect parts of the Zuider Zee having a uniform depth of 8 ft.
This shallowness of its waters served to protect the Zuider Zee from the invasion of large ships of war.
The fisheries of the Zuider Zee are of considerable importance.
The scheme recommended by the Zuider Zee Vereeniging (1886) formed the subject of a report in 1894 by a state commission.
In 1901 the government introduced a bill in the States General, based on the recommendations of the commission, providing for enclosing the Zuider Zee by building a dike from the North Holland coast, through the Amsteldiep to Wieringen and from that island to the Friesland coast at Piaam; and further providing for the draining of two portions of the enclosed area, namely the N.W.
With the exception of Griend and Schokland, the islands of the Zuider Zee are inhabited by small fishing communities, who retain some archaic customs and a picturesque dress.
It is connected with Amsterdam by a steam tramway, passing by way of the small fortified towns of Naarden and Muiden on the Zuider Zee.
It is situated in the middle of the Gooi, a stretch of hilly country extending from the Zuider Zee to about 5 m.
Bishop Godebald (1122-1127) granted to the inhabitants of Utrecht and of Muiden, the neighbouring port on the Zuider Zee, their first privileges, which were confirmed on the 22nd of June 1122 by the emperor Henry V., who died at Utrecht in 1125.
Between their basins are the Vechte and other small rivers flowing into the Zuider Zee.
EDAM, a town of Holland in the province of North Holland, close to the Zuider Zee, about 13 m.
It is connected with the Zuider Zee by a fine canal protected by a large sea-lock (1828), and has regular steam-boat communication in various directions.
Free access to the Zuider Zee was obtained by the construction of a new dock in 1357, in which year the town also received civic rights from William V.
Still farther west is the Vecht, which, rising in Westphalia, flows to the Zuider Zee.
NORTH HOLLAND, a province of the kingdom of Holland, lying between the North Sea and the Zuider Zee, and on the landward side bounded by the provinces of South Holland and Utrecht.
The province also includes the islands of Texel, Vlieland and Terschelling, belonging to the group of the Frisian Islands, as well as Wieringen, Marken and Urk in the Zuider Zee.
The Y, which was formerly an inlet of the Zuider Zee, was drained, and the North Sea ship canal was formed in its stead (1865-1876), and carried through the dunes to Ymuiden.
The security of the Zuider Zee for trade and fishing purposes was the first factor in the commercial development of North Holland, and the cities of Medemblik, Enkhuizen, Hoorn, Edam and Monnikendam, though now little more than market centres for the surrounding district, possessed a large foreign commerce in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
The principal sea-inlets in the north are the Texel Gat or Marsdiep and the Vlie, which lead past the chain of the Frisian Islands into the large inland sea or gulf called the Zuider Zee, and the Wadden or " shallows," which extend along the shores of Friesland and Groningen as far as the Dollart and the mouth of the Ems. The inland sea-board thus formed consists of low coasts of sea-clay protected by dikes, and of some high diluvial strata which rise far enough above the level of the sea to make dikes unnecessary, as in the case of the Gooi hills between Naarden and the Eem, the Veluwe hills between Nykerk and Elburg, and the steep cliffs of the Gaasterland between Oude Mirdum and Stavoren.
The Zuider Zee and the bay in the Frisian coast known as the Lauwers Zee also gradually came into existence in the 13th century.
The Ysel and the Vecht flow to the Zuider Zee; the other branches to the North Sea.
Into the Zuider Zee there also flow the Kuinder, the Zwarte Water, with its tributary the Vecht, and the Eem.
This fact is illustrated by the broadening of river mouths and estuaries at this time, and the beginning of the formation of the Zuider Zee.
The shores of the Zuider Zee and the Wadden, and the Frisian and Zuider Zee islands, are also partially protected by dikes.
The appearance of northern shells in the upper divisions of the Pliocene series indicates the approach of the Glacial period, and glacial drift containing Scandinavian boulders now covers much of the country east of the Zuider Zee.
Sea-aster flourishes in the Wadden of Friesland and Groningen, the Dollart and the Zeeland estuaries, giving place nearer the shore to sandspurry (Spergularia), or sea-poa or floating meadow grass (Glyceria maritima), which grows up to the dikes, and affords pasture for cattle and sheep. Along the coast of Overysel and in the Biesbosch lake club-rush, or scirpus, is planted in considerable quantities for the hat-making industry, and common sea-wrack (Zostera marina) is found in large patches in the northern half of the Zuider Zee, where it is gathered for trade purposes during the months of June, July and August.
The northern and southern provinces are further connected by the lines Amsterdam - Zaandam (1878) - Enkhuizen (1885), whence there is a steam ferry across the Zuider Zee to Stavoren, from where the railway is continued to Leeuwarden (1883-1885); the Netherlands Central railway, Utrecht - AmersfoortZwoole - Kampen (1863); and the line Utrecht - 's Hertogenbosch (1868-1869) which is continued southward into Belgium by the lines bought in 1898 from the Grand Central Belge railway, namely, via Tilburg to Turnhout (1867), and via Eindhoven (1866) to Hasselt.
The fisheries are commonly divided into four particular fishing areas, namely, the " deep-sea " fishery of the North Sea, and the " inner " (binnengaatsch) fisheries of the Wadden, the Zuider Zee, and the South Holland and Zeeland waters.
In the Zuider Zee small herring, flat fish, anchovies and shrimps are caught, the chief fishing centres being the islands of Texel, Urk and Wieringen, and the coast towns of Helder, Bunschoten, Huizen, Enkhuizen, Vollendam, Kampen, Harderwyk, Vollenhove.
Havard, Dead Cities of the Zuider Zee, &c. (translated from the French, London 1876), and D.
Mention may also be made of Old Dutch Towns and Villages of the Zuider Zee, by W.
VOLLENDAM, a small fishing village of Holland in the province of North Holland, adjoining Edam on the shores of the Zuider Zee.
The Steenwyker Aa, however, enters the Zuider Zee independently.
Off the coast of Holland in summer it is more plentiful, entering the Zuider Zee in such numbers as to give rise to a regular and valuable fishery.
There is reason to believe that the anchovies found at the western end of the English Channel in November and December are those which annually migrate from the Zuider Zee and Scheldt in autumn, returning thither in the following spring; they must be held to form an isolated stock, for none come up from the south in summer to occupy the English Channel, though the species is resident on the coast of Portugal.
The explanation appears to be that the shallow and landlocked waters of the Zuider Zee, as well as the sea on the Dutch coast, become raised to a higher temperature in summer than any part of the sea about the British coasts, and that therefore anchovies are able to spawn and maintain their numbers in these waters.
Their reproduction and development were first described by a Dutch naturalist from observations made on the shores of the Zuider Zee.
in length have been taken in the Zuider Zee, and these must be held to have been derived from the spawning of the previous summer.
There is no evidence to decide the question whether all the young anchovies as well as the adults leave the Zuider Zee in autumn, but, considering the winter temperature there, it is probable that they do.
GELDERLAND, GELDERS, or GUELDERS, formerly a duchy of the Empire, on the lower Rhine and the Yssel, bounded by Friesland, Westphalia, Brabant, Holland and the Zuider Zee; part of which has become the province of Holland, dealt with separately below.
ENKHUIZEN, a seaport of Holland in the province of North Holland, on the Zuider Zee, and a railway terminus, i 12 m.
by the Zuider Zee and the North Sea, E.
by North Holland and the Zuider Zee and E.
It belongs chiefly to the basin of the Rhine; the Lower Rhine, which skirts its southern border, after sending off the Crooked Rhine at Wijk, becomes the Lek, and the Crooked Rhine in its turn, after sending off the Vecht at Utrecht to the Zuider Zee, becomes the Old Rhine.
The north-eastern portion of the province is drained by the Eem, which falls into the Zuider Zee.
The watershed between the Rhine and the Eem is formed by a plateau of sand and gravel hills which extend from the southeast corner on the Rhine to Zeist near Utrecht, and also northwards to Huizen on the Zuider Zee.
Bunschoten on the Zuider Zee is a fishing village; Venendaal, on the south-eastern border, originally a fen-colony, is now a market for the bee-keeping industry in the east.
the right to coin money and all the land between the Leck and the Zuider Zee.
MEDEMBLIK, a seaport of Holland, on the Zuider Zee, the terminus of a branch railway from Hoorn, '02 m.
HOORN, a seaport in the province of North Holland, Holland, on a bay of the Zuider Zee called the Hoornerhop, and a junction station 231 m.
Many of these are decorated with inscriptions and bas-reliefs, some of which commemorate the battle on the Zuider Zee in 1573, in which the Beggars defeated the Spaniards under Count Bossu.
The chief industries include gold and silver work, and there are also tobacco factories, saw-mills and some small boat-building yards, a considerable number of vessels being engaged in the Zuider Zee fisheries.
AMSTERDAM, the chief city of Holland, in the province of North Holland, on the south side of the Y or IJ, an arm of the Zuider Zee, in 52° 22' N.
The first attempt which the city of Amsterdam made to overcome the evils wrought to its trade by the slow formation of the Pampus sandbank at the entrance to the Y from the Zuider Zee, was the construction of the North Holland canal to the Helder in 1825.
He obtained from the emperor Otto III., with whom he was in great favour in 983, a considerable extension of territory, that now covered by the Zuider Zee and southward down to ions.
In 1170 a great flood caused immense devastation in the north and helped to form the Zuider Zee.
by the Zuider Zee, N.
It includes the island of Schokland in the Zuider Zee.
Along the shores of the Zuider Zee, however, west of the Zwolle-Leeuwarden railway, the country is low-lying and covered for the most part with fertile pasture lands.
and joins the Zwarte Water, which communicates with the Zuider Zee by the Zwolsche Diep and with the Ysel by the Willemsvaart.
Kampen, Genemuiden, Vollenhove and Blokzyl, on the Zuider Zee, carry on some fishing trade.
HARLINGEN, a seaport in the province of Friesland, Holland, on the Zuider Zee, and the terminus of the railway and canal from Leeuwarden (15z m.
It is situated on the Marsdiep, the channel separating the island of Texel from the mainland, and the main entrance to the Zuider Zee, and besides being the terminus of the North Holland canal from Amsterdam, it is an important naval and military station.
When this receded, a canal was cut to the Zuider Zee, and in 1422 it was made a Hansa town.
But there is some reason for believing that the part of Holland which lies to the west of the Zuider Zee was at first inhabited by a different people, the Canninefates, a sister tribe to the Batavi.
Under the protection of the Frankish king Dagobert (622-638), the Christian missionaries Amandus (St Amand) and Eligius (St Eloi) attempted the conversion of these Flemish Frisians, and their efforts were attended with a certain measure of success; but farther north the building of a church by Dagobert at Trajectum (Utrecht) at once aroused the fierce hostility of the heathen tribesmen of the Zuider Zee.
He was, however, beaten by Pippin of Heristal in the battle of Dorstadt (689), and was compelled to cede West Frisia (Frisia citerior) from the Scheldt to the Zuider Zee to the conqueror.
But the Frieslanders east of the Zuider Zee obstinately resisted repeated attempts to bring them into subjection.
by the Zuider Zee, N.E.
This valley extends from the Rhine along the Grift, the Luntersche Beek, and the Eem to the Zuider Zee, and would still offer an outlet in this direction to the Rhine at high water if it were not for the river dikes.
Nykerk, Harderwyk and Elburg are fishing towns on the Zuider Zee.
It is favourably situated at the confluence of a number of canals and rivers which communicate hence with the Zuider Zee by the Meppeler Diep, and rose rapidly into prominence in the 19th century.
Beyond Utrecht, where it is again diminished by the divergence of the Vecht to the Zuider Zee, the river under the name of the "Oude Rijn," or Old Rhine, degenerates into a sluggish and almost stagnant stream, which requires the artificial aid of a canal and of sluices in finding its way to the sea.
The towns of the League, stretching from Thorn and Krakow on the East to the towns of the Zuider Zee on the West, and from Wisby and Reval in the North to GÃƒ¶ttingen in the South, were arranged in groups, following in the main the territorial divisions.
m., and, including the Zuider Zee and the Wadden (2050 sq.
The Rockanje Lake near Brielle is remarkable for the strong salty solution which covers even the growing reeds with a 1 The datum plane, or basis of the measurement of heights, is throughout Holland, and also in some of the border districts of Germany, the Amsterdamsch Peil (A.P.), or Amsterdam water-level, and represents the average high water-level of the Y at Amsterdam at the time when it was still open to the Zuider Zee.
AMSTERDAM, the chief city of Holland, in the province of North Holland, on the south side of the Y or IJ, an arm of the Zuider Zee, in 52Ã‚° 22' N.
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