But the limits of even Polish complacency had at last been reached, and Zolkiewski and Chodkiewicz were sent against the rebels, whom they routed at Oransk near Guzow, after a desperate encounter, on the 6th of July 1607.
His first military service at home was against the Cossack rising of Nalewajko as lieutenant to Zolkiewski, and he subsequently assisted Zamoyski in his victorious Moldavian campaign.
STANISLAUS KONIECPOLSKI (1591-1646), Polish soldier, was the most illustrious member of an ancient Polish family which rendered great services to the Republic. Educated at the academy of Cracow, he learned the science of war under the great Jan Chodkiewicz, whom he accompanied on his Muscovite campaigns, and under the equally great Stanislaus Zolkiewski, whose daughter Catherine he married.
But the necessary supplies were never forthcoming and the diet remained absolutely indifferent to the triumphs of Zolkiewski and the other great generals who performed Brobdingnagian feats with Lilliputian armies.
This policy was very beneficial to the Catholic cause, as it diverted the Turk from central to northeastern Europe; yet, but for the self-sacrificing heroism of Zolkiewski at Cecora and of Chodkiewicz at Khotin, it might have been most ruinous to Poland.
ZOLKIEWSKI, STANISLAUS (1547-1619), the most illustrious member of an ancient Ruthenian family which emigrated to Galicia in the 15th century.
During the interregnum in Poland after the death of Henry of Valois, Zolkiewski was an ardent partisan of the chancellor Zamoyski, and supported the candidature of Stephen Bathory, under whose banner he learned the art of war in the Muscovite campaigns.
On the death of Stephen, Zolkiewski vigorously supported the policy of Zamoyski, and took an active part in the battle of Byczyna, when the Austrian archduke Maximilian was defeated by the Polish chancellor.
Shortly afterwards Zolkiewski was made castellan.
Zolkiewski then returned to the Polish camp and assisted in the reduction of Smolensk, but Moscow in the meantime drove out the Polish garrison and proclaimed a native dynasty under Michael Romanov.
When Zolkiewski presented his captives, Tsar Vasily and his family, to the Polish diet, he received an ovation and was rewarded with the dignity of hetman wielki (commander-in-chief).
The peace of Jaruda was then confirmed, and the king conferred upon Zolkiewski the grand-chancellorship, an honour he had neither desired nor expected.
Zolkiewski is one of the most heroic figures in Polish history.
See Stanislaw Gabryel Kozlowski, Life of Stanislaus Zolkiewski (Pol.) (Cracow, 1904).
From his early youth he gave promise of great military talent, and served his apprenticeship in the science of war under Zolkiewski in the Muscovite campaigns of 1610-1612, and under Chodkiewicz in 1617-1618.
Stanislaus Zolkiewski >>
(SoBIEsKI) (1624-1696), king of Poland, was the eldest son of James Sobieski, castellan of Cracow, and Theofila Danillowiczowna, grand-daughter of the great Hetman Zolkiewski.
The Muscovite war had no sooner been ended by the treaty of Deulina than Chodkiewicz was hastily despatched southwards to defend the southern frontier against the Turks, who after the catastrophe of Cecora (see Zolkiewski) had high hopes of conquering Poland altogether.
On his return he was fiercely assailed by the diet for not risking everything in a pitched battle, but Zolkiewski defended himself with an eloquence which silenced his most venomous opponents.
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